A Comprehensive Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicity Studies of Acanthus ilicifolius
Keywords:Acanthus ilicifolius, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, therapeutic potential
Acanthus ilicifolius is a medicinal plant found in coastal regions of tropical and subtropical countries. It has traditional uses in folk medicine for wound healing, fever, and respiratory disorders. Phytochemical studies have identified bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids in Acanthus ilicifolius, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-enhancing properties. Pharmacological studies have shown its potential anti-cancer, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory, and wound-healing activities. However, clinical evidence on human safety and efficacy is limited, and more research, including well-designed clinical trials, is needed. Toxicity studies indicate that moderate doses of Acanthus ilicifolius are generally safe, but caution is required with excessive or prolonged use. High doses of extract may cause liver and kidney damage in animals, highlighting the need for proper dosage and duration of use. Further research is needed to establish the safety, efficacy, mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and long-term safety of Acanthus ilicifolius. This review provides a comprehensive overview for researchers, healthcare professionals, and herbal medicine practitioners interested in the potential therapeutic applications of Acanthus ilicifolius.