Latin American Journal of Pharmacy : A Life Science Journal <div align="justify"><strong><em>Latin American Journal of Pharmacy</em> (formerly <em>Acta Farmacutica Bonaerense</em>) ISSN 0326 2383</strong> is the scientific journal of the College of Pharmacists of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The journal publishes research reports in the form of original articles or short communications on most aspects of pharmaceutical sciences, with strong emphasis on originality and scientific quality. More specifically, but not exclusively, the journal publishes mainly reports in medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, drug absorption and metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, drug delivery, pharmaceutical technology and biotechnology, pharmaceutical care, and clinical drug evaluation. Reviews or mini-reviews are not encouraged, but experimental articles are privileged. Articles reporting the isolation of secondary metabolites of plants will be only considered if biological and toxicological assays are included. In general, reports on biological activities of crude extracts are not considered for publication unless any bioactive compound is isolated and identified. Contributions reporting unexceptional and predictable bioactivity (for instance, antioxidant activity of extracts or antimicrobial activity of essential oils) are not normally considered for publication.<br /><br />Articles are indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Service, BioScience Information Service (Biological Abstracts), Periodica (Index of Latin American Scientific Journals), International Pharmaceutical Technology &amp; Product Manufacture Abstracts, Referativnyi Zhurnal (Institut of Scientific Information, Russian Academy of Sciences), EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and LATINDEX. The journal was awarded in 1986 and 2000 with APTA-Antonio Rizzuto prize (scientific journals category) and in 2002 was qualified as scientifical journal level one (excellent) by the Argentine Center of Scientific and Technological and Information (CAICYT-.CONICET) within the LATINDEX Project, integrantes the Common Core of Argentinian Scientific Journals and has been proclaimed as a journal of provincial interest by the Honorable Deputy Chamber of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.<br />From 2017, <em>Lat. Am. J. Pharm.</em> publishes twelve issues per year</div> Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires en-US Latin American Journal of Pharmacy : A Life Science Journal Regulatory Affairs In Global Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Challenges And Opportunities <p>The pharmaceutical industry faces immense challenges navigating the intricate web of global regulations while operating across diverse jurisdictions. This paper delves into the regulatory landscape of global pharmaceutical manufacturing, identifying pivotal hurdles and avenues for optimizing processes, bolstering compliance, and fostering international alignment. Through an exhaustive literature review, it scrutinizes the current state of pharmaceutical manufacturing and explores the transformative potential of Industry 4.0 technologies, notably artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), in addressing regulatory complexities. Key insights underscore the imperative of aligning with evolving regulations, grappling with supply chain intricacies, embracing emerging technologies, and advancing harmonization initiatives. Forward-looking strategies advocate for collaborative endeavors between regulatory bodies and industry stakeholders, alongside the provision of clear directives for integrating novel technologies and fortifying data integrity protocols. By confronting these challenges head-on and capitalizing on emerging opportunities, the pharmaceutical sector stands poised to optimize global manufacturing practices, safeguard product integrity, uphold patient welfare, and catalyze innovation-driven growth.</p> Mitul Tilala, Abhip Dilip Chawda, Abhishek Pandurang Benke Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 43 5 1 9 Preparation, Standardization Of Sustained Release Tablet Containing Antihypertensive Drug Nifedipine Using Natural Binding Agent <p>Oral drug delivery systems make up around half of all drug delivery systems on the market, and oral medication administration has long been the most common method of drug delivery. There is little chance of harm at the administration location and no sterility issue. The new and innovative drug delivery technologies of today are quickly replacing the traditional dose forms of pharmaceuticals. In contemporary medicine, the sustained release and controlled release dose forms have gained immense popularity. Due to increased design flexibility in dosage forms, oral administration of sustained release systems has drawn considerable interest. Maintaining a steady blood level is crucial, particularly while using antihypertensive medications, as dose dumping can result in hypotension. Achieving a steady state blood level that is both therapeutically beneficial and non-toxic over an extended length of time is the fundamental aim of therapy. Creating appropriate dosage schedules is a crucial step towards achieving this objective. The primary topic of this research paper is the current study, which focuses on an effort to separate the mucilage from the Jackfruit and to formulate and assess a sustained release tablet of Nifedipine using different concentrations of mucilage as a natural binding agent. In conclusion, this article discusses reports of a novel approach to construct sustained release Nifedipine tablets by using mucilage as a binder at varying concentrations.</p> Kajal Mudgal*, Priya kushwaha, Apurva Joshi, Vijay Pathak Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 43 5 10 23 Role Of Omega -3 And Probiotics In Non –Surgical Periodontal Therapy – A Preliminary Study <p>Background:</p> <p>There has been a lot of attention lately about using dietary supplements to control low-grade inflammation. Omega-3 supplements and probiotics are two supplements that have been studied. The results of these trials, despite the small sample sizes in most of them, point to the possibility that probiotic supplements can help older adults’ immune systems and reduce inflammation. It has also been demonstrated that omega-3 supplements provide great promise for reducing inflammation and related health issues in the elderly.</p> <p>Our study aimed to ascertain whether the individual agents (probiotics and omega-3) in separate cohort of patients were clinically effective in controlling the visible signs of periodontal disease.</p> <p>Materials and methods:</p> <p>90 patients ( 43 males and&nbsp; 47 females) aged between 18 to 72years diagnosed with periodontal disease&nbsp; based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, underwent scaling and root planing&nbsp; and then were divided into 3 groups – group A adjunctive omega – 3 tablets administration; group B – adjunctive probiotic tablets administration and group C – control ( no active agent was given).The clinical&nbsp; periodontal parameters like plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depths and clinical attachment loss were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months respectively.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>Within each of the groups A, B &amp; C, the changes observed were statistically significant in the various time frames( P&lt;0.001). The differences between the groups A and B and between A and C were statistically significant (P&lt; 0.005) with regard to probing depth and CAL only. However, the difference between groups B and C were statistically not significant for any of the parameters( P&gt;0.05). Significant changes were observed in the disease status in all 3 groups.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>Both probiotics and omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy may be equally useful in non-surgical periodontal therapy.</p> Dr Shreya Shetty*, BDS, MDS( Periodontics), FICOI; Dr Mawadah Mohammed Najeeb Khayat, BDS; Dr Albatoul Hussain Alattas, BDS; Dr Zakia Marwan Ergesoos, BDS; Dr Rajaa Hussain Alsulaimani, BDS; Dr. Sundos AbdulRahman Alyamani, BDS; Dr Joud Majed Aljuhani, B Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-09 2024-05-09 43 5 24 35 The Historical Entanglement of Some Biochemical Pathways, Intermediates, and Metabolites in Cancer-Anticancer Interaction: A Review Article <p>Background: Cancer-related chemotherapeutics’ research and biochemical background are two stars navigating in the same galaxy. Many chemotherapeutics initiate their action through affecting or intervening with regulatory enzymes, some metabolic intermediates, molecular processes, or immune-related pathways during cell growth and proliferation.</p> <p>Main Body: This review highlights the historical entanglement of some biochemical intermediates and metabolites implicated in cancer-anticancer interaction and the historical revolution of chemotherapeutics starting with nitrogen mustard till the utilization of some biological therapy for cancer treatment. Folate antagonists can block folate-requiring enzymes needed for DNA formation. Cisplatin induces tumor cell apoptosis by crosslinking with the DNA guanine and adenine bases and hence interferes with the DNA repair mechanisms. Rituximab, used for the treatment of follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that typically affects complement-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.</p> <p>Conclusion: Studies on the biological role of chemotherapeutics and their mechanisms of action never overlooked the biochemical evidence participated either by intervention with regulatory enzymes, some metabolic intermediates, molecular processes, or immune-related pathways during cell growth and proliferation.</p> Mohammed Helmy Faris Shalayel*, Sayeeda Anjum, Mohd. Rasheeduddin Imran, Mohammed Nazrul Islam, Abdullah Khamsan Althaiban, Rana Alharbi and Ashfaq Ahmad* Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 43 5 36 42 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Saudi Population Toward Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Its Vector, and Reservoir Animals: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasite-borne illness, endemic in KSA since the first reported case in 1973. This study evaluates the community's knowledge, attitude, and preventive actions related to cutaneous leishmaniasis, its vector, and reservoir animal. The respondents knew little about the disease, its vector, and reservoir animals. A small percentage recognizes sand flies and knows where and when they breed and spread leishmaniasis, but they agreed it transmits the disease. Few responders are aware that skin infection is the main illness of the disease, but the majority agreed that it is preventable. Few knows that illness is common in summer, but they agree that cleanliness and hygienic handling and avoiding insect bites using insecticide sprays and insect repellent may help prevent the disease. The responders who either personally had experienced CL or through a family, indicated management of the conditions was possible using fire-cauterization (kay). The majority of responders were unaware of reservoir animals, how to control them, or how to take precautions against them. Public education crusades on the disease, its reservoirs, and its vector, as well as setting up a government initiative to eliminate rodents and sandflies at their nesting locations is crucial.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohamed A.A. Orabi*, Ahmed A. Lahiq, Ahmed Abdullah Al Awadh, Mohammed Merae Alshahrani, Basel A. Abdel-Wahab, Marwa Abdelmalek, and El-Shaymaa Abdel-Sattar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 43 5 43 54 Comparative Assessment Of Different Periodontal Risk Assessment Tools – A Preliminary Report <p>Introduction:</p> <p>Periodontal risk assessment is important to ensure successful outcome of periodontal therapy. Various assessment tools have been devised over the years which include the periodontal risk assessment(PRA) tool by Lang &amp; Tonetti, modified periodontal risk assessment tool and periodontal risk calculator(PRC) among the many available tools.&nbsp; The present study intended to compare the periodontal risk assessed by these 3 tools.</p> <p>Materials and methods:</p> <p>Following the approval from the institutional ethical committee, 273 male and female patients aged 30 to 60 years reporting to the ISNC dental clinics from October 2020 until April 2021 were selected and periodontal risk assessment was done with all 3 tools. Clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters and other elements of risk such as smoking and systemic condition/ Diabetes were recorded.</p> <p>Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSSV 22 software.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>PRA and modified PRA were comparable in assessing low, medium and high periodontal risk whereas PRC showed marked variation in comparison. ( P&lt;0.005). However, the common risk variables such as diabetes, smoking and probing pocket depths &gt; 5mm were comparable to each other with no significant differences(P&gt;0.05)</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>PRA and modified PRA are effective risk assessment tools in assessment of periodontal risk in comparison with PRC.</p> Dr Shreya Shetty*; Bds, Mds(Periodontics), Ficoi; Dr Jood Ahmed Balkhyoor ; Bds; Lama Saleh Alhazmi; Bds; Juman Alhusain Alrifai; Bds, Ms Khammarunissa Shaikh, B.Sc, M.Sc(Statistics). Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 43 5 55 64 Utilizing Sodium Hydrogen Sulphide to Enhance Renal Secretory Functions: A Promising Approach <p>Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) is the enlargement of cardiomyocytes which will progress to cardiomegaly and heart failure. During the progression of LVH, renal reabsorption and excretory capabilities are also altered. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) donors have been reported not only arrest the progression of LVH but also has improved the responsiveness of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the rats with LVH. Present study was set out with the hypothesis that chronic administration of H2S can improve the functions of the kidney by improving renal reabsorption and excretory capabilities by modulating oxidative stress and inhibition of collagen deposition in the kidney of Wistar Kyoto rats with LVH. LVH was induced by administration of isoprenaline (5 mg/kg, sub-cutaneous) and caffeine (62 mg/L in drinking water) for 14 days. Sodium hydrogen sulphide, a donor of H2S was administered at the dose of 56μM intraperitoneally for 35 days. Renal functions parameters were measured by taking the urine samples of the rats by placing them in metabolic cages for 24 hours on days 0 and 35. On day 35, rats were euthanized, kidney and heart indices were calculated. Kidney tissues were further processed in 5% formalin for histopathology to measure the collagen content in the tissue by using PicroSirus red staining. Plasma samples were used for the measurement of oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with H2S donors to LVH group has significantly reversed (all P&lt;0.05) the elevated levels of Fractional excretions of sodium (FENa) and potassium (FEK) when compared to LVH-WKY group. Chronic administration of H2S donors to LVH group has significantly increased (P&lt;0.05) the plasma levels of H2S in LVH- H2S group which ultimately reduced the kidney indices of LVH-H2S group when compared to LVH-WKY group. Chronic administration of H2S donors to LVH group has significantly increased (P&lt;0.05) the plasma levels of SOD and significantly decreased (P&lt;0.05) that of MDA in LVH-H2S group when compared to LVH-WKY group. Increased H2S and SOD levels in the plasma of LVH- H2S group has reduced the collagen content in the kidney tissue when compared to LVH-WKY group. In summary, Sodium hydrogen sulphide chronic administrations to Wistar Kyoto rats with left ventricular hypertrophy improved renal reabsorption and excretory capabilities by modulating oxidative stress and inhibition of collagen deposition in the kidney of rats with LVH.</p> Faraj Ahmad Abuilaiwi* Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 43 5 65 73