Latin American Journal of Pharmacy <p align="justify"><strong><em>Latin American Journal of Pharmacy</em> (formerly <em>Acta Farmacutica Bonaerense</em>) ISSN 0326 2383</strong> is the scientific journal of the College of Pharmacists of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The journal publishes research reports in the form of original articles or short communications on most aspects of pharmaceutical sciences, with strong emphasis on originality and scientific quality. More specifically, but not exclusively, the journal publishes mainly reports in medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, drug absorption and metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, drug delivery, pharmaceutical technology and biotechnology, pharmaceutical care, and clinical drug evaluation. Reviews or mini-reviews are not encouraged, but experimental articles are privileged. Articles reporting the isolation of secondary metabolites of plants will be only considered if biological and toxicological assays are included. In general, reports on biological activities of crude extracts are not considered for publication unless any bioactive compound is isolated and identified. Contributions reporting unexceptional and predictable bioactivity (for instance, antioxidant activity of extracts or antimicrobial activity of essential oils) are not normally considered for publication.<br /><br />Articles are indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Service, BioScience Information Service (Biological Abstracts), Periodica (Index of Latin American Scientific Journals), International Pharmaceutical Technology &amp; Product Manufacture Abstracts, Referativnyi Zhurnal (Institut of Scientific Information, Russian Academy of Sciences), EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and LATINDEX. The journal was awarded in 1986 and 2000 with APTA-Antonio Rizzuto prize (scientific journals category) and in 2002 was qualified as scientifical journal level one (excellent) by the Argentine Center of Scientific and Technological and Information (CAICYT-.CONICET) within the LATINDEX Project, integrantes the Common Core of Argentinian Scientific Journals and has been proclaimed as a journal of provincial interest by the Honorable Deputy Chamber of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. <br />From 2017, <em>Lat. Am. J. Pharm.</em> publishes twelve issues per year</p> Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires en-US Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 0326-2383 Anti-Pyretic Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Anogeissus Latifolia Roxb In Albino Wistar Rats <p>The antipyretic effects of Anogeissus latifolia aqueous leaf extract on Wistar rats were studied. In total, 30 Wistar rats (both sexes) ranging in weight from 150 to 200 grams were employed. The fever was artificially induced with baker's yeast. There were five groups of rats. six rats in each study group. The third, fourth, groups got 200 and 400mg/kg b.w. of After induction, the aqueous extract and the control medication The first two groups were used as comparable negative and normal controls Blood samples were taken from slaughtered rats for blood tests, urine tests, and other biochemical tests. The plant's phytochemical profile revealed the Quinine, Tannins, Phenolic Compounds, and Alkaloids are all present. Significant results were found. Group 2 showed a statistically significant increased, rectal temperature, and Groups 2 and 3, while Group 5 showed a nonsignificant decrease in these metrics. respectively. C-reactive protein and nitric oxide levels both rose significantly (p 0.05). Studies found concentrations in groups 3 and 4 compared to group 2. All haematological indicators across all treatment groups showed no statistically significant differences. found, in contrast to the second group. Anogeissus latifolia, leaf aqueous extract showed after 4 hours of treatment, pyretic effects at 400mg/kg b.w<strong>.</strong></p> Anubhav Dubey*, Anusree Basu, Rajesh Ghosh, Amartya De, Harpal kaur, Ajay Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 42 5 1 9 Indian Mythology- Not a Fiction A Reading of Ashwin Sanghi’s Keepers of the Kalachakra <p>From basic education to medicine, astronomy and even the latest quantum physics, everything is mentioned in the scriptures. One fails to extract the exact meaning of the written scriptures rather would just brush it off. Heisenberg, German physicist had spent some time in India, where he was the guest of Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore, they had a long conversation about Indian philosophy, Science and religion. During one of these conversations Tagore quotes few spiritual elements from Rig Veda and Heisenberg begins to understand that the concept of theory of relativity, interconnectedness and impermanence, which were difficult for him and his fellow mates to understand, were the basics of Indian spirituality. The concept of New Historicism is to understand the idea of the text when it was written, it attempts to reinterpret the history or the story given and defamiliarize it. New Historicism gives a fresh approach to the already said and believed things, with the parallel reading of the text and the co-text one can get an idea of the things that happened in a particular period and the genuineness of the history.The stories of our ancestors are not always mere fiction but they had scientific reasons too. Many of us still believe that everything happens for a reason but how that everything happens is still a question and when further researched it's godly or divine for some and for others it's scientific. This paper brings out how Ashwin Sanghi pulls fiction, science, mythology and history together<strong>.</strong></p> B.Vijayashree, Dr.C.Geetha, Dr.Savitha A R Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 42 5 10 13 Preparation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Powder for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus through Their Preformulation Parameters <p>Diabetes is a silent killer that causes significant economic damage in various developing and developed nations. To reduce the strain on a person's health and economy as well as the burden on society as a whole, better therapies must be developed with fewer side effects. Polyherbal preparation is also a better option in the modern medical age for the treatment of diabetes compared to the other allopathic medicine. Polyherbal powder has been prepared with Azadirachta indica leaves, Cinnamomum zeylanicum barks, Terminalia bellirica fruits, and Withania somnifera roots for diabetes mellitus in the present work and evaluated the powder based organoleptic, rheological, physico and phytochemical properties. On the basis of the earlier scientific research work mentioned in the scientific fields, Azadirachta indica leaves, Cinnamomum zeylanicum barks, Terminalia bellirica fruits, and Withania somnifera roots have been utilised in the present work to make the polyherbal powder. Standard practises were used to evaluate all the parameters. The polyherbal powder's organoleptic characteristics were determined and found to be a dull brown colour, distinctive odor, astringent taste, and a reasonably fine texture. The presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates, and glycosides was detected in the phytochemical qualitative test. The polyherbal powder shows impurities in the form of ash values basically silica and calcium oxalate that was found to be 5.66±0.93, acid insoluble ash value obtained 1.66±0.19, water soluble ash value obtained 3.02±0.29. According to physicochemical examination, the polyherbal powder had prolonged stability and good flow characteristics. The values obtained for flow properties i.e. bulk density was 0.79±0.065, tapped density 0.85±0.061, Hausner’s ratio 1.08±0.02, Carr’s index 4.53±0.79 and angle of repose for polyherbal powder was 29.9±1.27. Polyherbal powder's organoleptic characteristics were determined in the present work which could be used for the development of better and effective polyherbal formulation to treat diabetes mellitus in the future<strong>.</strong></p> Mayank Srivastava, Pranay Wal, Dinesh Kumar Patel* Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 42 5 14 26 Association between lipoprotein(a) levels and risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents, coronary artery disease, and dyslipidaemia <p>Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between lipoprotein(a) levels and risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents, coronary artery disease, and dyslipidaemia (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, History of smoking, Alcohol intake, Dietary habits, and Family history of vascular events). Methods: This was a hospital-based case control study conducted among patients (in the age group of 40 to 80 years with CVA of ischemic origin or CAD) who attended the outpatient department (OPD) and admitted in Department of General Medicine, Vinayaka Missions Medical College &amp; Hospital, Karaikal during the time period of June 2016 to June 2017. The controls enrolled were healthy individuals without any previous history of CAD or CVA (ischemic origin) and a known case of dyslipidaemia. Results: The present study included 100 patients – 50 as cases (25 had ischaemic CVA and 25 had CAD) and 50 as controls. The mean (SD) age of the patients included in the present study was 58.90 years (10.74). More than half the patients included were males (62.0%). The mean (SD) levels of Lp(a) were significantly higher among CAD patients (36.73) and CVA patients (38.51) in comparison with dyslipidaemia patients (24.32). However, the levels of LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were significantly higher among dyslipidaemia patients (121.82, 166.40 and 261.20 respectively) in comparison with CAD and CVA patients. The mean (SD) levels of Lp(a) were higher among diabetics (40.75) in comparison with patients having hypertension (34.28), smoking (32.99). taking alcohol (31.20), and non-vegetarian diet (31.39). The low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels did not vary significantly between the risk groups. The results showed that Lp(a) levels were significantly higher among CAD patients (7.53 times) and CVA patients (5.11 times). Conclusion: These findings contribute to our understanding of the intricate connections between lipoproteins, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular health<strong>.</strong></p> Nikil Sam Varughese, Glady Muriankeril Varghese, Mulaka Gopi Sairam Reddy, Anirudh Bakam, Vinodkumar Radhakrishnan,* Sujeetha Chandrababu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 42 5 27 34 Lupus Vulgaris – A Case Series And Review Of Literature <p>Tuberculosis still has a high burden of cases in developing countries. Lupus vulgaris is a slowly progressive paucibacillary form of tuberculosis reported in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in sensitized individuals. It poses a difficulty in diagnosis due to its paucibacillary nature. In this article, we report 3 cases of lupus vulgaris and its review of literature.</p> Dr.Soundarya.S, Dr.Anandha Jhothi A M, Prof.Jayakar Thomas Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 35 39 Development and validation of a modified QuEChERS method coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of z-drugs in biological matrices <p>The objective of this study was to develop and validate a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Z-Drugs (a class of sedative-hypnotic medications) in biological matrices include saliva and tissue sample. This study utilized a modified QuEChERS approach to determine the most optimal conditions for simultaneously measuring three non-benzodiazepines in saliva and tissue samples through Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. A fixed sample volume of 10 uL was injected, and the analytical column was consistently kept at 40°C. Various concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) were employed for analysis. The limit of quantification for all drugs ranged from 0.25 to 0.5 ng/mL. As a result, we have successfully extracted zolpidem, zopiclone, and eszopiclone from biological matrices for the first time, achieving a high recovery rate (&gt; 90%). This extraction approach proves to be highly beneficial for obtaining these substances from various biological samples since it employs a significantly reduced amount of solvent, thus minimizing waste production.</p> Varsha Chauhan, Manu Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 40 48 Antiulcer Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of the Aerial Part of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in Rats <p>Background: The goal of the current study was to examine the anti-ulcer potential of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of the convolvulaceae plant Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in rats.</p> <p>Methods: Thirty six animals were used in the investigation, which were divided into six groups of six rats each for the purpose of evaluating antiulcer activity. For 24 hours, all of the rats were starved. Following the fasting period, oral indomethacin (40 mg/kg) was administered. All samples of the plant extract were given 60 min prior to Indomethacin as follows: Group I animals received distilled water (0.5 mL/kg b.w.; orally) and served as control. Group II animals received distilled water (0.5 mL/kg b.w.; orally) and served as ulcer control. Group III rats received Omeprazole (30 mg/kg b.w.; orally), and served as the reference drug group for comparison. Groups IV, V and VI received EIC orally at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w., respectively. To evaluate a number of parameters, gastric juice was collected. Gastric volume, ulcer index, pH, free acidity and total acidity in the gastric juice of Indomethacin-induced (InI) rats were used to measure the antiulcer activity. Additionally, the markers of oxidative stress were measured, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT).</p> <p>Results: A significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in gastric volume, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in the gastric juice of InI rats served as evidence that the ethanolic extract (EE) of aerial part of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. (AIC) had antiulcer activity on InI ulcer in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the elevated LPO and SOD levels were dramatically reduced by the pre-treatment with EE of AIC. Also, in a dose-dependent way, the lowered GSH and CAT levels were elevated in InI ulcerated rats.</p> <p>Conclusion: The current investigation showed that InI rats exposed to the EE of AIC had strong dose-dependent antiulcer activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Divya Kiran, Ankur Rohilla, Naresh Kalra* Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 49 56 Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Aerial Parts of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. in Rats <p>Ipomoea carnea Jacq., which is prized for its unrealized biological potential, is a significant folklore medicinal plant. The current study's objective was to examine the hydro-methanolic extract of the aerial part of the convolvulaceae plant Ipomoea carnea Jacq.'s antiulcer activity in rats. Thirty-six animals, divided into six groups of six rats each, were used in the study to evaluate the antiulcer activity. All the rats were starved for 24 h. After the fasting period, Indomethacin (40 mg/kg, p.o.) was given. All samples of the plant extract were given 60 min prior to Indomethacin as follows: Group I animals received distilled water (0.5 mL/kg b.w.; orally) and served as control. Group II animals received distilled water (0.5 mL/kg b.w.; orally) and served as ulcer control. Group III rats received Omeprazole (30 mg/kg b.w.; orally), and served as the reference drug group for comparison. Groups IV, V and VI received EIC orally at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The gastric juice was taken for the assessment of numerous parameters. Measurements of the antiulcer activity included gastric volume, ulcer index, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. The indicators of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT), were also assessed.</p> <p>The hydromethanolic extract (HME) of the aerial part of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. (AIC) had a significant (p0.05) decrease in gastric volume, ulcer index, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of Indomethacin-induced (InI) rats, which was proof that it had antiulcer activity on InI ulcer in rats. Additionally, pre-treating AIC with HME significantly decreased the increased LPO and SOD levels. A dose-dependent increase in the lowered GSH and CAT levels was also seen in InI animals. In coclusion, in the current study, AIC's HME displayed potent dose-dependent antiulcer effect in rats.</p> Divya Kiran, Ankur Rohilla, Naresh Kalra* Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 57 64 Role Of Favipiravir In The Management Of Covid-19 <p>Coronavirus possess a descriptive morphology, the name derived from the outer fringe embedded envelop protein. This viral infectious disorder (COVID-19) is produced by using excessive acute updated syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This transmission disease up-to-date first located in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and has rapidly transmit everywhere in the global in numerous days. This virus originates in from bats and became transmitted updated human beings via unknown animals in wuhan. The sickness is transmitted by inhalation of droplets or contact with infected men and women and it has incubation duration tiers from 2 to 14 days. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted millions of deaths and masses of millions of confirmed infections worldwide. This pandemic has brought about researchers up updated medicines or vaccines up-to-date lessen or up-to-date the development and spread of this disorder. A selection of previously licensed and marketed medicines are being tested for the remedy and recurrence of SARS-CoV2, which includes favipiravir. Favipiravir changed inupupdated diagnosed as an influenza antiviral drug in Japan in 2014, and has been acknowledged up to date have a capability in vitro activity up-to-date SARS-CoV-2, further updated its broad healing protection scope. Favipiravir up-to-date currently authorized and officially used in many nations global. Our evaluate affords insights and expertise of the modern position of favipiravir within the treatment of COVID-19 contamination, specializing in pre- clinical and ongoing medical trials, proof of its efficacy up to date updated SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19, aspect consequences, anti-viral mechanism, and the pharmacokinetic homes of the drug in the remedy of COVID-19 up to date updated its trap to date genic consequences, favipiravir cannot be offered up-to-date expectant or pregnant moms. The practical efficacy of such an intervention routine will depend upon its dose, remedy period, and price up to date problems in utility.</p> Shraddha M. Pagar, Dr. Vishal S. More, Shweta K. Kasar, Mr. Vinayak H. Wadgaonkar, Tejaswini D. Bitturwar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 65 72 Comparative evaluation of bond strength on reattachment of fractured tooth fragments with different rehydration techniques-an Invitro study <p>AIM AND BACKGROUND:Traumatic injuries involving fracture of anterior tooth is one of the common problems among children and adolescents. Tooth&nbsp; fragment reattachment technique represents an important step in the science and art of restoring fractured anterior&nbsp; teeth.One of&nbsp; the&nbsp; factors&nbsp; that&nbsp; play&nbsp; an&nbsp; important&nbsp; role&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; success&nbsp; of fragment reattachment is the type of rehydration media. In the present study, effectiveness of various rehydration media; milk,coconut water and CPP-ACP on bond strength of reattached tooth fragments is compared with dry storage at 1 and 24 hour time intervals.Aim of the present study is to assess the effect of rehydration with coconut water,milk and CPP-ACP on the bond strength of the reattached tooth fragments at 1 and 24 hour time intervals.</p> <p>METHODOLOGY: In this experimental study 72&nbsp; extracted human&nbsp; permanent&nbsp; central incisors were selected and samples were divided into four groups of 18 teeth each. These groups were further divided into eight groups of nine teeth each based on the duration&nbsp; of&nbsp; placing&nbsp; in&nbsp; rehydration&nbsp; media&nbsp; and&nbsp; samples&nbsp; were&nbsp; sectioned&nbsp; stored&nbsp; in rehydration media coconut water, milk, CPP-ACP and dry storage as control group. After 1 and 24 hours the fragments were reattached using a flowable composite resin. The bond strength was measured using Universal Testing Machine.</p> <p>RESULTS: Milk showed statistically significant increase in bond strength value of 273.30 ± 64.33 N at 1 hr storage and 285.76 ± 83.95 N at 24 hr storage which is followed by CPP-ACP, coconut water and dry storage respectively. In intra group comparison among 1 and 24 hr storage all groups have improved bond strength at 24 hr storage except for dry storage but this difference was not statistically significant.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Milk can be considered as the best rehydration media for fragment reattachment<strong>.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gopika Gopan A, Amith Adyanthaya, Marium Raheema, Mubeena T A, Preema M U, Nileena Balan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 73 81 Effect Of Probiotic Coconut Yogurt And Lactose Free Yogurt Consumption On Salivary Ph And Buffer Capacity In Children – An In Vivo Study <p>Aims and objectives: To assess and compare salivary pH changes and buffer capacity of saliva after consumption of probiotic coconut yogurt and lactose free yogurt with that of regular yogurt.</p> <p>Methodology: This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted at the institution with 75 caries free patients belonging to the age group of 12-14 years who were allocated into three groups. Test group A, Test group B and Control Group consist of 25 subjects who consumed 90gm of probiotic coconut yogurt(PCY), probiotic lactose free yogurt(PLFY), regular yogurt(RY). Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, after ½ hour and 1 hour of intervention period using digital pH meter. All statistical procedures were performed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 25.0. One way ANOVA was done for multiple comparison and paired t test was used for association between variables within the group at different intervals. Probability value (p &lt;0.05) was considered statistically significant.</p> <p>Results: Study revealed an statistically significant increase in salivary pH in both test groups (group A and group B ) after ½ and 1 hour than control group with a p value &lt;0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in buffering capacity between the groups at ½ and 1 hour.</p> <p>Conclusion : Consumption of both probiotic coconut yogurt and probiotic lactose free yogurt for a short period of time showed marked elevation in salivary pH which may help in preventing dental caries.</p> Preema M U, Marium Raheema, Amith Adyanthaya, Gopika Gopan, Mubeena T A, Laya Vijayaraj Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 42 5 82 89 Primary Care Providers’ Mental Health and Turnover Intentions in the Local Community <p>Aim: The goal of this study is to improve customer service to the fullest extent possible while also providing the fundamental information needed to effectively manage the human resources of staff at primary care providers in a COVID-19 environment. Background: In order to increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment of primary care provider workers while reducing turnover intention, as well as to maximize better customer service, it is intended to establish a hypothetical model that explains the influence of primary care provider workers in the community on turnover intention. Additionally, the basic data is provided to the primary care provider's efficient human resource management of workers. Methods: This study uses structural model study that verifies the fitness of the model after establishing a hypothetical model for the intention to leave the workforce of the primary care provider in the community to find the variables affecting that intention. Results: The direct effect of compensation on turnover intention was -116, and the indirect effect via the parameter was -.367. This indicates that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are fully mediating effects when considering the effect of compensation, which is a dependent variable perceived by primary care provider workers in the community. Conclusions: Hospital managers at primary care providers in the community believe that if they seek ways to increase compensation through organizational support and improve motivation and morale so that workers can demonstrate their capabilities, nurses' organizational commitment will improve leading to a lower rate of turnover or bringing organizational development through organizational performance in a COVID-19 world.</p> Myeong Jong Kim, Sun Jung Park, Sang Yong Park, Hye Sun Shin* Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 90 99 Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation Of Orally Disintegrating Tablet Of Granisetron Hydrochloride Using Novel Co-Processed Ludiflash <p>The study aimed to develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing 1 mg of Granisetron Hydrochloride. ODTs are gaining traction in the pharmaceutical sector due to their rapid tongue dispersion without water, benefiting from taste-masking properties. This proves advantageous, particularly for pediatric and geriatric patients who face difficulties swallowing conventional tablets, thus bolstering patient adherence. Granisetron hydrochloride, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, holds promise for managing chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea. Employing direct compression, nine distinct formulations of Granisetron hydrochloride mouth-dissolving tablets were crafted, incorporating innovative co-processed excipients: Ludiflash and super disintegrant sodium starch glycolate. Thorough evaluations of pre- and post-compression parameters revealed compliance with prescribed limits and favorable manufacturing flow properties. Friability values below 1% adhered to pharmacopoeial norms, and tablets exhibited robust mechanical integrity, reflecting hardness ranging from 2.46-4.24 kg/cm³. Uniform drug content (99.08-101.79% of claim) underscored consistency across formulations. Dissolution profiles, within acceptable ranges, were notable, with Formulation F9 demonstrating optimal release (91.99% at 5 min, 98.98% at 10 min, and 100.01% at 15 min). Notably, Formulation F6 excelled across aspects: in-vitro disintegration time (38 seconds), dissolution profile (87.99% at 5 min, 98.01% at 10 min, and 98.96% at 15 min), hardness (3.78 kg/cm³), Carr's index (20.92), and drug content (99.13%). In conclusion, this research successfully developed Granisetron Hydrochloride ODTs, enhancing patient compliance and palatability. Formulation F6 emerged as the preferred option, signifying its potential in addressing therapeutic challenges linked to bioavailability and taste.</p> Bijesh Shrestha, Vandana Sahani, Dr. Shivanand Patil Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 100 108 Isolation and identification of gram-negative bacilli from clinical samples isolated from intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital <p>Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) caused by gram-negative bacteria continue to be a major concern in healthcare facilities worldwide. These infections pose significant challenges due to their ability to acquire antibiotic resistance, resulting in higher morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. This study conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) investigated the frequency and distribution of gram-negative bacteria in various clinical specimens. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli were identified as the predominant pathogens causing infections, with urine specimens showing the highest bacterial growth. While male patients exhibited a slightly higher susceptibility to gram-negative bacilli infections, age did not significantly influence infection rates. The findings highlight the need for effective infection control measures, judicious antibiotic prescribing practices, and improved surveillance to combat the rising prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in healthcare settings.</p> B.S.Saravanan**, S.Swarupa Gnana Sudha Meriam, Mukesh Kumar Dharmalingam Jothinathan*, C. Venkataramaniah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 109 115 A New Stability Indicating Hplc Method For Simultaneous Determination Of Related Substances In Metformin Hydrochloride, Empagliflozin And Linagliptin In Bulk Material And Pharmaceutical Formulation <p>The objective of the study was to develop a simple, specific and stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Metformin hydrochloride, Empagliflozin and Linagliptin and its related substances in pharmaceutical formulation. Separation of Metformin hydrochloride, Empagliflozin and Linagliptin from its major degradant impurities was achieved on aAccucoreC18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm) Thermo Scientific with a Buffer solution pH 1.70 and Acetonitrile with Gradient Program at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The analytes were detected at 230 nm. Different chromatographic parameters were carefully optimized. The relative response factors for DEG-1, N-Formyl Lina of Linagliptin, Metformine Impurity B of Metformin hydrochloride, and Hydroxy Empagliflozin of Empagliflozin in combined pharmaceutical formulation were determined. The method has been validated with respect to solution stability, system suitability, LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The validation criteria were met in all cases. The developed method was successfully used for the detection and quantification of known impurities and degradants in the drug substance of Metformin hydrochloride, Empagliflozin and Linagliptin during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products.</p> Kalpesh C. Raka*, Dr. Kavita Loksh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 116 131 Assess The Knowledge And Attitude Regarding Figure Of Eight Exercise On Controlling Blood Pressure Among Nursing Students <p>Background:Physical inactivity is correlated with a higher risk of these conditions in both younger and elderly populations. By practicing healthy habits, nursing students can create a pool of talented nurses more likely to provide efficient management and counseling techniques to maintain optimal blood pressure levels.</p> <p>Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding the figure of&nbsp; eight exercise for controlling blood pressure among nursing students.</p> <p>Methods: The descriptive survey research approach was used for this study. The nursing students from 2nd year to 4th year were selected as samples for this study. A non-probability-convenient sampling technique was used. The data was collected from 110 participants using an online platform from January to February 2023. The data collection tool consists of three parts. Baseline knowledge and attitude of students regarding the figure of eight exercise for controlling blood pressure were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire for knowledge, and a 5-point Likert scale was used to assess attitude. The datas were analyzed by using version 25 IBM*SPSS Statistics.</p> <p>Results: It showed about 62 (56.4%) students had moderate knowledge regarding the figure-eight exercise for controlling blood pressure, and less than 50% of study participants had a negative attitude toward the figure-eight exercise for controlling blood pressure.</p> <p>Conclusions: This study’s findings imply that the majority of the students had moderate knowledge regarding the figure of eight exercise for controlling blood pressure. Attitude was important for effective control of blood pressure, and this study's findings show students have less attitude. Therefore, strengthening their attitude to need more continuing nursing education to improve their management skills in controlling blood pressure and helping to improve the attitude of students regarding the figure of eight exercise on controlling blood pressure will reduce the incidence of hypertension and prevent the complications of hypertension when they take care of patients in health sectors in the future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hamad Ghaleb Dailah, Sithara Begum K, Darin mansor mathkor, Nagat sidig yasin Eltaher, Rabab Khdir Abdalla Mansour, Ibrahim Alqasmi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 132 142 A Study on the Pregnancy and Childbirth Experiences of Married Migrant Women <p>Purpose: The aim of the present study is to identify and understand the experiences of healthcare system in Korea among married immigrant women during the period of pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum . Methods: Data of 6 married migrant women were collected through focus group interviews, which were then recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. Results: Four categories were established: 1. Challenges During Pregnancy and Childbirth; 2. Overcoming Difficult Times with the Help of Others; 3. Life Filled with Gratitude and Happiness; and 4. Strategies for Coping with Pregnancy, Childbirth and Child-rearing. Conclusion: By analyzing the pregnancy and childbirth experiences of married migrant women, developing a practical and specific intervention program for pregnancy and childbirth of immigrant women is deemed to be of great importance.</p> Eun Young, Choi, Sun Jung, Park, Su-Jin Won Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 143 154 Recent Advancement, Approaches And Strategies In Drug Delivery System Design <p>Background</p> <p>Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) play a critical role in modern medicine by enabling targeted and controlled drug release to specific areas of the body. Recent advancements in drug delivery have significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. This review provides a concise overview of the recent progress made in this field, focusing on the development of highly sophisticated drug delivery systems.</p> <p>The main body of the abstract</p> <p>Efforts in drug delivery have been directed towards achieving site-specific targeting while minimizing systemic exposure and associated side effects. Various techniques and rapid advancements in delivery systems have been adopted to deliver drugs with precise localization and minimal dosage, thus preventing drug dispersion into the systemic circulation. These advancements have led to the emergence of highly advanced drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. This review emphasizes the distribution strategies, construction methodologies, and specific instances that have contributed to the recent progress in drug delivery system design. Nanotechnology has played a pivotal role by enabling precise manipulation and engineering of drug delivery systems at the nanoscale. Gene therapy, AI, CAAD (Computer-Aided Drug Design), Robotic Pills, and biomaterials have also been extensively explored to enhance targeting and controlled release of drugs. These approaches and strategies hold immense potential in improving the efficacy and safety of drug delivery, ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes.</p> <p>Short conclusion</p> <p>Pharmaceutical experts and researchers interested in drug delivery system design will find this review to be a valuable resource. It provides insights into the recent advancements in DDS design and highlights the potential of nanotechnology, gene therapy, AI, CAAD, Robotic Pills, and biomaterials in revolutionizing drug delivery.</p> Binod Lamichhane, Meenakshi Kandwal, Dr. Shivanand Patil Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 155 168 Review On Bilayer Oral Dosage Form With Immediate And Sustained Release Layers <p>Background</p> <p>There are lots of disease that require the lifetime medication. When a patient takes a medicine that often make them feel better, medicine is only thing that the patient can trust to improve their health condition when they suffer from any disease. But taking different medicine multiple time in a day can be a tedious task and patient may also feel inconvenient to have those medicine in their working place and during day travel, also some patients want to keep their disease state private. Many pharmaceutical industries are in a continuous endeavor to produce medicine that are safe, effective and convenient that ultimately leads to the patient compliance. One of the best inventions in the pharmaceutical field is the development of Bilayer oral dosage form because this helps to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties that the patient has to face.</p> <p>Main body&nbsp;</p> <p>Bilayer oral dosage form, one layer with immediate release drug and another layer with sustained release maintains single or two preferred drug concentration in the blood within an identified therapeutic window, sustained release drug are usually designed to slowly release a drug in the body over a extended period of time while immediate release drug release drug immediately after administration. All Bilayer oral dosage form should meet the release pattern given in the monograph or in the pharmacopoeia. The method selection for the preparation of oral dosage form depends on open the physiochemical property of the drug.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The motive of this study is to show the benefit of the bilayer oral dosage form containing both immediate release and sustained release.</p> Bidur Chapagain, Sahani Vandana, Dr. Shivanand Patil Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 169 179 Comprehension study of the mechanism by which microorganisms influence the inhibition of corrosion: a review <p>Microorganisms’ ability to alter electrochemical states at the metal-solution interface has an impact on corrosion. Such changes can have a range of effects, from the induction of corrosion to its suppression. Current corrosion control strategies are costly, subject to environmental constraints, and occasionally ineffective. Indeed, research indicates that microbial corrosion inhibition is a widespread phenomenon. Scientific progress at the crossroads of corrosion engineering and biofilm biology is required if this innovative approach is to be put into practice successfully. This article provides a summary of the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by microorganisms. Microorganisms’ involvement in corrosion inhibition causes a wide range of outcomes which are not seen in non-living environments.</p> Sonika Lamba, Surbhi shrama, RajendraVishwakarma* Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 42 5 180 194 Development and Optimization of Sustained Release Tablets for Alfuzosin Hydrochloride using Different Polymer Matrices <p>Background</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the formulation of sustained release tablets using different classes of polymers to enhance drug efficacy and provide prolonged relief for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and hypertension. The two different polymers i.e.; hydrophilic polymer HPMC K 100M and Hydrophobic polymer EC was considered as an independent variable in a factorial design, and drug release at 1, 6, 12, and 20 hours was selected as the response variable. The primary objective of this study was to develop a medication that eliminates the need for multiple daily dosages for BPH and hypertension. Therefore, the focus was on creating a sustained release tablet that could offer a synergistic effect and provide prolonged relief. By optimizing the formulation, we aimed to enhance drug efficacy and minimize the frequency of drug intake.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Dissolution studies revealed that the optimized formulation achieved sustained drug release over a 20-hour period, with a release profile fitting Higuchi kinetics. The release rate was dependent on the polymer concentration, with optimized ratio of HPMC and Ethyl-cellulose based tablets exhibiting the best drug release pattern. Physicochemical characterization, including tablet hardness, weight uniformity, and content uniformity, met the specified requirements.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study successfully developed and optimized sustained-release tablets for AFH using different polymer matrices. The findings suggest that these formulations have the potential to offer an effective treatment option for BPH, with improved patient compliance and reduced side effects. The use of HPMC and EC as release-controlling agents provides flexibility in tailoring the drug release rate to meet specific therapeutic needs. Overall, this research contributes to the field of pharmaceutical formulation development and the optimization of sustained-release drug delivery systems.</p> Binod Lamichhane, Meenakshi Kandwal, Dr. Shivanand Patil Copyright (c) 195 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 195 211 Drug-Induced Periodontal And Dental Conditions- A Review <p>The increase in targeted therapies and with the approval of new pharmaceutical drugs, adverse drug reactions are expected. The effects of drugs and chemicals can be seen in the oral cavity. The updated knowledge of these drugs can help in better diagnosis of the disease and in preventing the toxic and unwanted effects of drugs. A large population of people takes over-the-counter and prescription medication. The effects of these drugs can also be seen in the periodontal and dental structures. Drug-induced gingival enlargement is the most common periodontal complication. Gingival enlargement caused by these drugs may affect day-to-day functions like speech, and mastication and also cause esthetic problems. Severe cases might require surgical intervention. Various drugs and chemicals can affect the tooth either during development, causing physical damage, or later causing caries and tooth discoloration. Osteonecrosis is one of the severe complications of bisphosphonates with a prevalence of 0.8 to 12%. A thorough medical history should be taken to identify the offending drug for proper management of drug-induced conditions. Periodontal and dental treatment if required, should be advised before the prescription of long-term therapies.</p> Dr. Arunee Garg, Dr. Apurva Garg, Dr.MK Gupta, Dr. Himanshu Singh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 212 220 Plaque Removal Efficacy With Powered And Manual Toothbrushes In Visually Impaired Children Using Three Different Sensory Input Methods In Dental Health Education - A Comparative Evaluation <p>INTRODUCTION: The study is to provide dental health education to visually impaired children through various sensory input methods along with this compares the plaque removal efficacy of manual toothbrushes and powered toothbrushes before and after oral health education.</p> <p>MATERIAL &amp; METHOD: A total of 60 participants were divided into three groups. Audio(group I), Braille(group II), and ATP technique(group III), The groups were further subdivided into 10 each as IA, IB, IIA IIB, and IIIA IIIB depending upon the type of brush used i.e., manual and powered respectively. The plaque-removal efficacy was evaluated at the end of the 15 days using the Turesky–Gilmor–Glickman Modification of The Quigley–Hein plaque Index.</p> <p>RESULTS: The paired t test revealed that the post plaque values showed that the plaque score is at least in the ATP, Audio, and Braille groups. An unpaired t-test revealed a significant reduction between the plaque index scores of the manual and powered groups in the second week (P-value, 0.05).</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Audio, braille, and Audio-tactile performance are efficient when utilized alone, the better understanding of oral hygiene achieved through the ATP technique and using with a powered toothbrush would give immense results.</p> <p>IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS: The study provides vital background and asserts the importance of health education methods in visually impaired children. The role of powered toothbrushes in these children is also highlighted.</p> B Malathi Sree, K.Chaitanya Ram, R Venkatsubramanian, Sindhura Burle, L.Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Shweta Bhayade Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 221 226 Nanotechnology In Pediatric Dentistry: A Narrative Review <p>Aims: Nanoparticles are being used a lot in dentistry, and the use of nanoparticles can bring about a change in almost all aspects of pediatric dentistry, from diagnosis to treatment. The aim here was to search scientific databases for the utilization of nanoparticles in pediatric dentistry. Nanotechnology is the science of material world in the scale of less than 100 nm. This has made a revolution in the field of medical and dental sciences by improvement in mechanical and physical traits of substances, helping to reinstate new investigative possibilities and microdelivery options.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: The literature search was done through various databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science using MeSh and free terms to collect data on “nanoparticles in pediatric dentistry.” Those articles that are written in English and those that had full text available were considered since its use in dentistry, whereas unpublished data and literature written in other languages and articles with only abstracts were excluded. Following the search results obtained, 31 articles were relevant. The reference list of all the articles thus included was hand-searched; full text evaluation was done; and duplicates were removed.</p> <p>Results: The articles mentioning nanoparticles in pediatric dentistry were very few, so we included articles with some association with pediatric dentistry, and finally 21 articles met the criteria of search. Nanoparticles have tremendous potential for being used in pediatric dentistry, namely the prevention of dental caries, restorative materials, endodontics, and imaging. Although beneficial these materials have to be applied with caution as still no long-term studies are available.</p> <p>Conclusion: Nanotechnology has been exploited in dentistry mostly with beneficial results. Scientists are working very hard to incorporate nanoparticles into every aspect of dentistry, pediatric dentistry in particular. There is a dearth of studies, both in vivo and in vitro, on these materials, and more studies will substantiate the uses in pediatric dentistry. The present scientific review will help us in understanding nanomaterials and the advantages and demerits of nanotechnology by addressing its social and medical implications.</p> Sindhura Burle, R Venkatsubramanian, K Chaitanya Ram, B Malathi Sree, S Bhanu Prasad, B Prudhvi Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 227 235 Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation Of Bilayer Tablets With Immediate Release Property Of Mefenamic Acid And Sustained Release Property Of Dicyclomine Hydrochloride <p>Objective: The aim of present study was to reduce the dosing frequency, sustained the action of Dicyclomine Hydrochloride and reduce the number of drugs by formulating two drugs Mefenamic acid and Dicyclomine in a Bilayer form and evaluating the in-vitro parameters of its sustained release of Dicyclomine Hydrochloride tablets using different grades of HPMC as rate controlling polymer.</p> <p>Introduction:&nbsp; Dicyclomine Hydrochloride is water soluble Anticholinergic drug that is used in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and reduce the symptoms of stomach and intestinal cramping. Sustained release system is a widely employed approach to release the drug slowly over an extended period of time that can address many challenges associated with conventional oral delivery, including frequent dosing.</p> <p>Mefenamic Acid is a poor water soluble Non Steroids Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) used to relive mild to moderate pain including menstrual pain.</p> <p>Materials and methods: Sustained release (SR) layer of Dicyclomine Hydrochloride were prepared using different grades of HPMC and Immediate Release (IR) layer of Mefenamic Acid were prepared using different excipients like Lactose Monohydrate, Pregelatinized Starch, Tween 80, PVPK-90, Sodium Starch Glycollate (SSG), Aerosil, Magnesium Stearate and water by Double Sided Direct Press Method.&nbsp;&nbsp; Pre-compression parameters (Angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carrs’ Index and Hausners ratio) and post compression parameters (weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release) were evaluated.</p> <p>Results: A simple and sensitive UV-VIS method was developed and validated to quantify and study the release profile of Mefenamic Acid and Dicyclomine HCl Bilayer Tablet. The in-vitro results showed formulation F5 had a more controlled and limit abiding release profile compared to other 6 formulations. The percentage drug release of formulation F5 was 97.61% ± 1.62 at 24 hour for SR layer and 97.61% ± 1.6 for IR layer</p> <p>Conclusion: The prepared Bilayer tablets containing 18% HPMC K15M and 22% HPMC K100M in SR layer similarly 23.23% Lactose Monohydrate, 17.45%&nbsp; Pregelatinized Starch, 1.091%&nbsp; Tween-80, 0.65%&nbsp; PVPK-90, 2.18% SSG, 0.44% Aerosil and 0.44% of Magnesium Stearate (F5) could be a promising Bilayer drug delivery system with IR and SR profile and the method developed was very simple yet sensitive.</p> Bidur Chapagain, Sahani Vandana, Dr. Shivanand Patil Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 236 264 Social Contributions Of Christian Missionaries <p>The Christian missionaries stamped their mark in the evolution of upliftment of society. In the process of social development, the Christian Missionaries played a vital role. In the early period of the fifteenth century the Portuguese put forth much effort to bring about mass conversions. Following them numerous missionaries both Roman Catholic and Protestants made sustained efforts to win over Tamils to their Christian faith. They used education and medical care as the means for developing their contacts with the people. “Love your God; Love your neighbor”, was their guiding principle. Education and health care were their main concern.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; They supported people during famine and epidemic. The Madurai Gazetteer reveals that a severe famine took place in the years 1832, 1833 and 1836. From 1822 to 1838 nearly 40 percent of the population was lost by epidemic disease, especially cholera. During the year 1857, 1858 and 1866 the famine prevailed in Melur, Dindigul and Thirumangalam, Madurai and some other parts of Ramanathapuram district.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The American Madura Mission rendered significant service at this crucial moment. In July 1849 Doctor Shelton came to Madurai and stayed there for about six years. Only three children died of cholera. Seeing the zeal of the missionaries, the civil surgeons of the government were encouraged for providing services to the disadvantaged, distressed or vulnerable persons or groups. Social workers served the needs of children and families, the poor or homeless, immigrants, the mentally ill, and the handicapped, victims of rape or domestic violence, and persons dependent on alcohol or drugs. The Christian missionaries in this district understood the basic problems of the converts and tried to alleviate them in a proper way. And in their efforts, they had to encounter a number of challenges to respond to the needs of the time. Their response to cater to this challenge gave birth to what is called Social Apostolate. The social apostolate of the Jesuits of the new Madurai Mission.</p> A.RUBY, Dr.B.SURESH KANNAN Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 265 273 A Play Of Uma Parameswaran”Dear Deedi My Sister” The Challenge Of Immigration And Nostalgia <p>This study examines the literary works of Uma Parameswaran to examine how Indian women perceive immigration, nostalgia, culture, language, and tradition. Dear Deedi, My Sister is the only book on which the author focuses. Because she could travel to India through letters to her beloved "deedi" or sister, Sapna in this book did not experience pangs of nostalgia. In Parameswaran's works, especially in Dear Deedi, My Sister, the sentiment of homesickness also engulfs immigrants from India and other nations. Indian woman Sapna writes to her sister who lives in her country of origin. The English word "sister" cannot adequately describe the emotion connected with "deedi." The contrast between India and Canada that Sapna continues to write about gives her longing for the country she left behind—a country that still exists in memory—some relief.</p> N. Siva Priya, Dr.T.Mangayarkarasi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 274 276 Synthesis of (E)-N'-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene) picolino hydrazide with promising antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities along with their in-silico studies <p>In recent years, there has been a significant amount of interest in hydrazide-hydrazone compounds as a result of their extensive use in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the new compound (E)-N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) picolino hydrazide, with the formula C20H19N3O2, was synthesised and confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques. The newly synthesised compound was tested for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties in vitro. The results of an in vitro anti-inflammatory activity test using the denaturation of bovine serum albumin as the measurement kit revealed a highly effective inhibitory effect. In addition, the results of the antimicrobial test showed that the compound demonstrated a maximum zone of inhibition (18.2 mm) against the Staphylococcus aureus strain at a higher concentration (32 μg/ml) of the tested sample (32 g/ml), which is greater than the standard drug (ciprofloxacin: 17.5 mm). The antifungal activity of (E)-N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) picolinohydrazide indicated a maximum inhibition zone of 9.2 mm at a higher concentration (32 μg/ml) of the tested sample, which is comparable to that of the standard drug (ketoconazole: 9.0 mm). The anti-inflammatory activity performed by the carrageenan-induced paw edema method also gave a promising result. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the active compounds had a higher docking score and interacted effectively with the target protein. In silico molecular docking, results revealed the COX-5 and LL-37 (residues 17–29) proteins mainly depends on H-bonds between the pyridine groups of the synthesized ligand and the catalytic residues of the binding site, π-cation/anion interactions, (iii) π-alkyl interactions, and formation of carbon-hydrogen bond, π- π bond that stabilizes the interaction with the active site. Among the analogs of the hydrazine hydride class, the newly synthesized compound: (E)-N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) picolino hydrazide proved to be a vital bioactive molecule.</p> Gul.afshan loni and sanjeevkumar Giri * Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 42 5 277 286 A study to assess the knowledge regarding Government Schemes for girls among adults in selected areas of Pune city <p>Government schemes are programmers launched by the government to improve the standard of living of all citizens. They are launched for the purpose of improving the livelihood of the people and providing security for leading a better life. Each scheme is launched to provide benefits to the individual in certain areas of their life. Some schemes grant financial security while others aim to provide socio-economic measures.The present study title: “Knowledge regarding&nbsp;&nbsp; Government Schemes for girls among adults in selected areas of Pune city.” The objective was to assess In this study assesses refers to check the knowledge regarding government schemes and adult means both male and female. Material and Methods: Researcher adopted&nbsp; descriptive research design It was carried out on 300 samples.The Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used. Simple Random sampling technique was used. Data analysis was done mainly using descriptive statistics. Result:Result revealed that majority 50.3% has poor knowledge, 42.3% have average knowledge and 7.3% have good knowledge regarding government schemes for girls among adults. There was majority 50.3% have poor knowledge, Interpretation of demographic variablesare not significantly associated with level of the 0.05 with the knowledge of adults. A comparative study to assess Knowledge of adults about government Scheme for girls can done in rural and urban area.The study was limited to knowledge of adult and&nbsp; selected areas of the Pune city.Conclusion: There is no association of demographic variables with pre test scores of socialization level in both control and experimental group which shows that no demographic variables under study can affect the socialization level. Recommendation: Similar&nbsp; study may be conducted larger population.</p> Dr. Monita Thokchom, Mr.Anam Amolik, Ms.Anamika Mate, Ms.Angelin J Shibhu, Ms.Anjali Kumari, Ms. Ardra M.V Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 42 5 287 293 A Study To Assess Effectiveness Of Pamphlet On Knowledge Regarding Side Effect Of Gutkha Among The Auto Drivers In Selected Areas Of Pune City <p>Introduction: Gutka, ghutka, guṭkha or betel quid is a chewing tobacco preparation made of crushed areca nut (also called betel nut), tobacco, catechu, paraffin wax, slaked lime (Calcium hydroxide) and sweet or savory flavorings, in India, Pakistan, other Asian countries, and North America.The present study title: “A Study to assess effectiveness of pamphlet on knowledge regarding side effect of Gutkha among the auto drivers in selected areas of Pune city”.</p> <p>Material and Methods: In present study, researcher adopted Correlative Descriptive research design It was carried out on 150 samples. The Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to data was collected using demographic profile and clinical profile. Data analysis was done mainly using descriptive statistics. Result: Result revealed pre and post intervention that the pre intervention mean score was 8.13 with SD 2.91 that was increased after the intervention which was 13.55% with SD 3.97. So it was stated that pamphlet on knowledge regarding side effects of gutka among the auto drivers was effective. Conclusion : There is effectiveness of pamphlet regarding the gutka.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mrs. Shubhangi Borude , Mr. Shantanu Sonwalkar , Ms.Sneha Shilimlar , Ms.Swapnali Suryvanshi, Ms.Aarti Kokate , Mr.Shubham Thorat , Mr.Pankaj Suryvanshi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 42 5 294 298 A study to assess the knowledge regarding stomach cancer among adults in selected community area of Pune city <p>Introduction: Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumours and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs; the latter process is referred to as metastasis. Widespread metastases are the primary cause of death from cancer.When malignant cells proliferate within the stomach lining, stomach cancer results. This type of cancer, also known as gastric cancer, can be challenging to identify because the majority of people rarely exhibit symptoms in the early stages. As a result, it frequently goes undetected until it has spread to other bodily areas.The present study title: “A study to assess the knowledge regarding stomach cancer among adults in selected community area of Pune city”.Material and Methods: In present study, researcher adopted non descriptive design. It was carried out on 100 samples. The Non-probability Convenient sampling method was used to data was collected using demographic profile and clinical profile. Data analysis was done mainly using descriptive statistics. Result: Result revealed depicts that majority 76%&nbsp; of participants were having Average knowledge regarding stomach cancer and 17% were having Good Knowledge and only 7% were having Poor knowledge with mean of 10.96and Sd +&nbsp; 2.38. Conclusion : A statistically there is Association of knowledge with demographic variables&nbsp; which&nbsp; shows that there is no significant association of knowledge&nbsp; with Age , Gender and Education as p value is less than 0.05 of level of significance.</p> Dr. Suresh Ray, Mr. Rahul Khatpe, Mr. Krishnakant Sonawane , Miss. Pornima kenjale,Miss. Harshada Kashid , Miss.Mansvi Kasabe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 42 5 299 303 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Methanolic Extract of Cassia alata L and its Antibacterial activity <p>As we know that Silver nanoparticles (SN) are very commonly found to be associated with a convalescent by inhibiting bacterial growth with fewer adverse effects like development of bacterial resistance and toxicity to the living cells. Methanolic extracts of Cassia alata L has been prepared in different concentrations purely as well as in combination with silver nanoparticles developed using Aspergillus flavus which were further tested against the isolates of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria using disc diffusion methods and minimal inhibitory concentrations. Various pathogenic bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were utilized to carry out this research work. Chemical profiling of the methanolic extract of Cassia alata L has been done using LC-MS. A symbiotic effect observed by both Cassia alata L methanolic extract as well as silver nanoparticles against all tested microbes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has the lowest IFA values (0.10-0.13) while comparing with other strains and it doesn’t show any symbiotic activity. When used separately to both the silver nanoparticles and the Cassia alata L methanolic extract shows highest sensitivity with inhibition zones of 16 and 19 mm respectively. Strongest symbiotic effect has shown by silver nanoparticles and Cassia alata L methanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus when 1 fold rise has occurred. In the present cutting edge medications, novel formulations can be prepared by using combination of silver nanoparticles with various medicinal plant extracts.</p> Dr. Anup Kumar Chakraborty*, Dr. Snehal Manekar, Dr. Imran A Sheikh, Kuldeep Chourasiya, Arti R. Chauvan, Manjusha U Kakde, Rani Sameer Sambare Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 42 5 304 311 The Portrayal of Drug Raloxifene by Using Histopathological Evaluation Methods in the deterrence of Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis through Biomarkers <p>A disorder names “Osteoporosis” takes place due to variation’s or disproportions in the activity of osteoblasts that is the bone forming cells. The aim of the study is to perform the histopathological analysis of drug Raloxifene using Bone biomarkers and bone regulators as they help to easily asses the osteoporosis in female mice through the evaluation of various biological parameters. There is use of Biomarkers for detecting the degradation of bone and then with the help of Bone Turnover markers it is easy to compare the effect of drug Raloxifene in treating the bone dysfunction and how this drug has shown its effects in people who are taking long term effect of Anti-Epileptic Drugs. The conclusion from the study states that Raloxifene helps to counteract the changes in bone and its loss on the basis of its evaluation parameters with the help of biomarkers it helps in the characterization which involves in early assessment of osteoporosis as this is only possible by collective assessment with DEXA and biomarkers. Therefore, Raloxifene is found to be selective estrogen receptor modulator having great results in females.</p> Sagarika Kabra1*, Prof. (Dr.) A.K.S Rawat, Prof. (Dr.) Pranay Wal, Prof. (Dr.) Akash Ved Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-22 2023-09-22 42 5 312 320 Brand Customization And Its Impact On Customer Satisfaction In Social Media Marketing With Special Reference To Apparels <p>Social media empowered customers to engage differently with their brands. Customers are demanding immediate and direct communication, so old processes need to be re-evaluated and updated to accommodate a new communication approach. The main aim of this study is to find the impact of brand customization on customer satisfaction. The data collected from the customers using social media marketing to purchase apparels. This shows that the custom branding is useful to maintain companies consistent brand identity recognizable to customers easily and used to fulfill customer’s expectations.</p> V. ANUPRIYA, Dr. G.S. MAHESWARI, Dr. M. KAVITHA Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-23 2023-09-23 42 5 321 324 Exploring Dinesavalyadi Taila: A Comprehensive Pharmaceutical and Analytical Study in the World of Ayurvedic Medicine <p>Background: Wound healing poses a prevalent challenge in daily medical practice, despite the advancements in allopathic medicine. Managing chronic wounds remains a significant hurdle for clinicians. Notably, Acharya Sushrut recognized the importance of wound management and detailed 60 treatment modalities (shashthi upakramas), many of which incorporate the use of oil. Various research studies have explored the added benefits of topical oil application for wound healing.</p> <p>Aims: This study aims to prepare and analyze Dinesavalyadi Taila, a formulation mentioned in Sahasrayogam for wound healing, specifically Dhusta vrana. The analysis employs instrumental phytochemical marking tools like HPTLC and evaluates its antibacterial properties.</p> <p>Settings and Design: The study is conducted in a laboratory setting, with a design focused on the preparation and analytical examination of Dinesavalyadi Taila.</p> <p>Methods and Material : Dinesavalyadi Taila is prepared as per Sahasrayogam and subjected to analytical scrutiny. Instrumental phytochemical marking tools, including HPTLC, are utilized in the study.</p> <p>Results: The study's results provide insights into the formulation's composition and its potential for wound healing. The antibacterial effects are also assessed, shedding light on its therapeutic properties.</p> <p>Conclusions: Dinesavalyadi Taila, as described in Sahasrayogam, exhibits promise as a therapeutic agent for wound healing. The analytical examination, along with antibacterial studies, contributes valuable information regarding its potential clinical applications.</p> *Dr Shubham Saini , Dr Aswin Haridas, Dr Prasanna Mathad, Dr Vivekanand Kullolli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-23 2023-09-23 42 5 325 335 Recent advancements on Transdermal and Topical drug delivery systems <p>In recent years, numerous administration methods that do not need the use of needles have arisen as a substitute for traditional needle injections. Due to its low rejection rate, exceptional effortlessness of administration, superb convenience and persistence amidst patients, topical drug delivery, a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) via a systemic methodology is the method that stands out as the most desirable among these options. Systemic delivery may have applications not just in the pharmaceutical sector but also in the industry of skincare, which includes the cosmetics industry. In this analysis, we analyse the various types of new DDSs in the systemic release of transdermal and topical drugs that are now available, such as nano-colloids, nanofibres, nanoparticle polymers etc., and a critical evaluation of the precise benefits and drawbacks, characterisation methods, along with each method’s potential.</p> Sohini Sen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-23 2023-09-23 42 5 336 341 Safety & Efficacy Of Ferric Carboxy Maltose In Third Trimester Of Pregnancy <p>Iron deficiency anemia is one of the commonest medical disorders encountered in pregnancy especially in developing countries. This is due to physiological drop of hemoglobin due to hemodilution, whereas most women in these countries enter pregnancy with depleted iron stores.</p> <p>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1998) defined Anemia in iron-supplemented pregnant women using a cutoff of the 5th percentile—11 g/dL in the first and third trimesters, and 10.5 g/dL in the second trimester of pregnancy[1]</p> <p>Anemia can leads to preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death, low Apgar score and infection. In fetus and infants.[2-4]</p> <p>Chang and associates (2013) followed 850 children born to women classified as iron deficient in the third trimester. The study concluded that children without iron supplementation had lower mental development at 12, 18, and 24 months of age, suggesting that prenatal iron deficiency is directly associated with proper mental development.[5]</p> <p>For many decades the mainstay of managing IDA has been oral iron supplements and (whole blood or PCV) transfusions. However, oral iron supplementation is associated with significant side effects resulting in non-compliance in many patients and the hazards of blood transfusion are well described and should be avoided a much as possible.[6].</p> Dr. PIYUSHA CHANDRAYAN, Dr. ARPANA PATEL Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 42 5 342 349 Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigation On The Aerial Parts Of Allium Cepa For Anti- Inflammatory And Analgesic Activity <p>The Objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanolic and petroleum extract of the aerial parts of Allium cepa in animal models. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by carrageenan- induced paw edema method. Also, the analgesic effect was examined by hot plate test. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extract of Allium cepa could reduce the edema in a dose-dependent manner (P&lt;0.05). The ethanol and petroleum ether (but not the other fractions) showed significant analgesic activity in hot plate test, when compared to pentazocine. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ethanolic and petroleum ether extract in animal models and justify traditional use of this plant in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. More studies to clarify the active components are necessary</p> Pankaj Singh Niranjan*, Riya Garg, Ramji Swarnkar, Suneel Kumar Niranjan, Dharmendra Singh, Kiran Singh, Rishikesh Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 42 5 350 357 Ethnopharmacological Investigation Of Some Medicinal Plants For The Management Of Nephrotoxicity <p>Nephrotoxicity poses a significant health challenge, warranting innovative approaches for its management. The leaves of Adhatoda cordifolia (A. cordifolia) and the leaves of Cyathea gigantea (C. gigantea) were meticulously collected from their natural habitats and authenticated by Dr. S. N. Dwivedi, a distinguished authority in botanical sciences. The authentication process ensured the accuracy of plant species identification, enhancing the credibility of subsequent investigations. To harness the therapeutic potential of these plants, a meticulous extraction process was employed. Leaves and seeds of the chosen plants were meticulously gathered, shade-dried to preserve their active constituents, and then processed into a coarse powder using a mechanical grinder. The powdered material underwent filtration through a No. 40 filter, facilitating the separation of coarse particles while retaining essential components.&nbsp; The comprehensive investigation aims to elucidate the bioactive constituents within A. cordifolia and C. gigantea that hold promise in ameliorating nephrotoxicity. Ethnopharmacological insights, combined with rigorous scientific methodologies, form the foundation of this study, potentially offering novel strategies for the management of nephrotoxicity. The botanical knowledge of traditional remedies converges with contemporary scientific rigor, underscoring the significance of ethnopharmacology in unlocking nature's therapeutic secrets for modern healthcare challenges. This research contributes to the expanding body of knowledge that bridges traditional wisdom with contemporary pharmacology, fostering a holistic approach to nephrotoxicity management</p> Shiv Jeet Singh, Pratyush Jain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 42 5 358 367 Green Synthesis Of Nanomaterial By Using Syzigium Cumini And Its Application: An Appraisal <p>Over the last two decades, extensive research work has been conducted on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and their application in the field of medical, cosmetics, catalysts, packaging, photonics, agriculture and electronics. Green synthesis aims in particular at decreasing the usage of toxic chemicals. For instance, the use of biological materials such as plants is usually safe. Plants also contain reducing and capping agents. synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts is one of the most simple, convenient, economical, and environmentally friendly methods that mitigate the involvement of toxic chemicals. Here we present the principles of green chemistry, and we review synthesis of nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini extracts and their recent applications. Various physical parameter and particle properties of green synthesized Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticle, Silver Nanoparticles, Copper nanoparticles, Gold nanoparticles, Co/CoO nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles and TiO2 nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini leaves and seeds extract were represented along with their potential applications. The review contains a summary with a detailed description of the process of synthesis, mechanism, characterization and their application in various fields of biosynthesized metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of Syzygium cumini</p> Pankaj Singh Niranjan*, Ramji Swarnkar, Dharmendra Singh, Kiran Singh, Suneel Kumar Niranjan, Rishikesh Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 42 5 368 376 The healing wisdom of Bhagavad Gita: An interventional study for the physically ill patients experiencing anxiety and depression <p>This study looks at the Indian psychology (teachings of Bhagavad Gita) as an approach to cater to physically ill patients having depression and anxiety. Patients were selected from the hospital in the national capital region, India. A need was felt to conduct this study as the increasing amount of physically ill patients having pessimistic thoughts leading to anxiety and depression. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was chosen, and the patients were tested for two variables depression and anxiety. A sample size of 39 adult population was selected for the study having moderate depression and anxiety assessed with patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and generalised anxiety disorder Scale (GAD-7). The intervention plan was for 40 minutes, 30 minutes session on Bhagavad Gita and 10 minutes mantra meditation on Hare Krishna Maha-mantra, three-week plan. Results indicated that the decrease in scores for both the variables was statistically significant Wilcoxon signed rank test (pre-test PHQ mean=17.08, post-test PHQ mean = 2.69, SD pre-test PHQ= 4.385, SD post-test PHQ= 1.127) pre-test GAD mean= 14.51, post-test GAD mean= 3.95, SD pre-test GAD= 3.568 and SD post-test GAD= 1.169). This can be allocated to the fact that the Indian intervention included in this study of Bhagavad Gita teachings and mantra meditation, patients could relate to and easily incorporate into their physically ill state and to depression and anxiety that they were having. Recommendations for further studies include studies on different age groups, cultures and variables.</p> <p>Key messages: The teachings from the Bhagavad Geeta can be incorporated as cultural adaptations for western psychotherapies while working with the Indian population. The current study reports the efficacy of culturally adapted interventions for alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety for the physically ill. More such studies with different populations would help recognise the effectiveness of Bhagavad Geeta based interventions.</p> Afreen Qureshi, Dr. Rati Khurana Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 42 5 377 384