Latin American Journal of Pharmacy <p align="justify"><strong><em>Latin American Journal of Pharmacy</em> (formerly <em>Acta Farmacutica Bonaerense</em>) ISSN 0326 2383</strong> is the scientific journal of the College of Pharmacists of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The journal publishes research reports in the form of original articles or short communications on most aspects of pharmaceutical sciences, with strong emphasis on originality and scientific quality. More specifically, but not exclusively, the journal publishes mainly reports in medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, drug absorption and metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, drug delivery, pharmaceutical technology and biotechnology, pharmaceutical care, and clinical drug evaluation. Reviews or mini-reviews are not encouraged, but experimental articles are privileged. Articles reporting the isolation of secondary metabolites of plants will be only considered if biological and toxicological assays are included. In general, reports on biological activities of crude extracts are not considered for publication unless any bioactive compound is isolated and identified. Contributions reporting unexceptional and predictable bioactivity (for instance, antioxidant activity of extracts or antimicrobial activity of essential oils) are not normally considered for publication.<br /><br />Articles are indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Service, BioScience Information Service (Biological Abstracts), Periodica (Index of Latin American Scientific Journals), International Pharmaceutical Technology &amp; Product Manufacture Abstracts, Referativnyi Zhurnal (Institut of Scientific Information, Russian Academy of Sciences), EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and LATINDEX. The journal was awarded in 1986 and 2000 with APTA-Antonio Rizzuto prize (scientific journals category) and in 2002 was qualified as scientifical journal level one (excellent) by the Argentine Center of Scientific and Technological and Information (CAICYT-.CONICET) within the LATINDEX Project, integrantes the Common Core of Argentinian Scientific Journals and has been proclaimed as a journal of provincial interest by the Honorable Deputy Chamber of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. <br />From 2017, <em>Lat. Am. J. Pharm.</em> publishes twelve issues per year</p> en-US (Latin American Journal of Pharmacy) (Latin American Journal of Pharmacy) Thu, 23 Nov 2023 10:45:54 +0000 OJS 60 Prevalence of anemia and its complications in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in pregnant women <p>Background: Anemia affects 40% of women during pregnancy leading to harmful consequences of pregnancy, including premature birth, low birth weight, infection, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section.</p> <p>Materials and methods: In the present retrospective cohort study, 390 pregnant women referred to the gynecology and obstetrics clinic of Amir Al-Momenin Hospital were investigated. Sampling was done in a facilitated manner among the referring women on the mentioned date. After collecting the data, they were analyzed through STATA version 11 software. Comparison of women with and without anemia in terms of pregnancy outcomes was done using independent t-test and chi-square as well as multivariate logistic regression models.</p> <p>Results: In the present study, it was shown that low hemoglobin and hematocrit in the first-trimester of pregnancy had no significant relationship with pregnancy outcomes. However, low hematocrit in the second-trimester significantly increases the chance of stillbirth, low Apgar score, and premature delivery, while it had no significant effect on other maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy.</p> <p>Conclusion: According to the present study, it seems that hematocrit in the second-trimester of pregnancy can be a predictor of some pregnancy outcomes in the mother and baby. Therefore, it is necessary to check blood indices and anemia in women, before pregnancy and during pregnancy, and in cases where anemia is diagnosed, timely and adequate treatment is necessary.</p> Pantea Ramezannezhad, Leili Rezaie Kahkhaie, Khadije Rezaie Keikhaie, Khadijeh Saravani, Armin Sanchooli Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Central Nervous System Tumors in Iran: A Systematic and Meta-analysis <p>Background: The central nervous system (CNS) is a main leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. This study aimed to review the prevalence of the CNS in Iran. A systematic literature search was done in international databases (Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus) for articles published by April 15, 2022. The keywords searched were benign brain tumors, chordomas, craniopharyngiomas, gangliocytomas, glomus jugular, meningiomas, pineocytomas, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas, malignant brain tumors, gliomas, astrocytomas, ependymomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, rare brain tumor, hemangioblastomas, rhabdoid tumors, pediatric brain tumors, low-grade astrocytomas (pilocytic), brainstem gliomas. A total of 8 studies examining 2,214 patients were found in this review. The mean age of the patients was 29.48±22.54 (range: 5.33 to 55) years. Regarding gender, 59% of the patients were males. The mean mortality rate following developing CNS tumor was 38.93±18.61% (19.2 to 56.18%). Male to female ratio was 1.37 in patients with CNS tumors. Prevalence of CNS tumors were high like ependymomas (14%), lymphomas (1%), glioma (22%), astrocytoma (34%), medulloblastoma (28%), craniopharyngioma (15%), and meningioma (4%) tumors. The death rate following developing CNS tumors in Iran is 38.93% involving men young people. Additionally, astrocytoma tumors (34%) and lymphoma tumors (1%) had the most significant and lowest prevalence of CNS malignancies, respectively, in Iran.</p> Nahid Dadashzadeh Asl, Tella Sadighpour, Meisam Haghmoradi, Ahmad Pour-Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi Sabaghpour Azarian, Hamid Hosseinpour *, Vahid Hosseinpour, Amir Barzegar Behrooz* Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Fingolimod and Dimethyl fumarate effects on lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis <p>Background: The relationship between lymphopenia resulting from treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the effect of drug treatments is not yet fully known. To date, few studies have been conducted on hematological disorders in patients with MS who have been treated with dimethyl fumarate or fingolimod, as well as the effect of these drugs on the number of lymphocytes and leukocytes.</p> <p>Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was performed on 80 patients with MS aged ≥ 18 years, who were diagnosed based on the symptoms and treated with dimethyl fumarate or fingolimod in the Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini hospital of Urmia in 2021. Patients were categorized according to the type and severity of MS based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We selected 80 patients in equal groups taking Fingolimod or Dimethyl fumarate. For all patients, complete blood count (CBC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) were calculated at the beginning of treatment, the third and sixth months.</p> <p>Results: The results of this study showed that in the 6th month, patients treated with fingolimod were more likely to have grade III or IV lymphopenia (P&lt;0.001) and a decrease in the mean percentage of lymphocytes (P&gt;0.001). Patients treated with dimethyl fumarate were more likely to have grade II lymphopenia than the other group (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Treatment with both fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate in patients with MS can lead to lymphopenia in patients, although this lymphopenia was more severe in patients treated with fingolimod.</p> Niloofar Moradifar, Surena Nazarbaghi, Rezvan Norouzzadeh Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Ginger Suppository on Post-Cesarean Pain Relief: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p>Background: Cesarean section (C-section) is one of the most frequent surgeries with acute postoperative pain influencing the early recovery. Recently, positive analgesic effects have been detected in ginger extracts, comparable with paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.</p> <p>Methods: The 242 patients were allocated into one of the two groups (intervention vs. control group). Immediately after the C-section, patients received either one suppository capsule of ginger containing 250 mg of the powdered granule of ginger rhizome or placebo. The pain severity with numerical scale was recorded at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 12th hour after C-section.</p> <p>Results: Most participants were 30 years or older, had high school diploma, and had a BMI of more than 30 (obese range). Beside age and BMI, no significant difference was observed in the time of C-section and vital signs between the two groups. All patients receiving ginger reported to have grade 1 pain during the 1st hour of surgery whereas, 24.8% and 20.7% of the control group had grade 2 or 3 pain (p&lt;0.001). We also developed a variable describing any increase in the pain intensity after the 1st hour up to the 12 hours following C-section. The result revealed that the pain worsened in 62% (75 cases) of patients in the control group vs. 4.1% (5 cases) of patients in the intervention group (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p>Conclusions: Ginger could be a safe alternative or adjuvant drug for common post-cesarean analgesic regimen, especially in cases experiencing mild-to-moderate pain. However, the exact dose and rout of ginger administration for the maximum effect needs to be further elucidated.</p> Souzan Soufizadeh Balaneji 1#, Mansoureh Yazdkhasti 2,3#, Zahra Ataie 4,5, Niusha Sharifinejad 6, Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadian-Attari 4, Mina Ataei 7,8*, Masoumeh Farahani 7, Banafsheh Mashak*, Behnood Farazmand Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of time from completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to gastrectomy on histopathological response of gastric cancer cases <p>Background: Gastric cancer surgery (gastrectomy) is usually recommended approximately 1 to 1.5 months after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but the optimal timing of gastrectomy is not clearly defined. So, the influence of time from completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to gastrectomy on the pathological response of patients with gastric cancer was evaluated in the present study.</p> <p>Methods and materials: This retrospective study evaluated the clinical data of 217 cases of gastric cancer locally advanced patients who underwent curative surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy during 2013-2020. The influence of time to surgery, defined as &gt;6, 5–6 and 4 weeks, on the pathological response of patients with gastric cancer was investigated. The data were entered into the SPSS version 24 and statistically evaluated.</p> <p>Results: Sixty-six cases of 217 patients (30.6%) had gastrectomy within four weeks of the last dose of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 98 cases (45.0%) within 5-6 weeks and 53 cases (24.5% ) after 6 weeks. The median age was 54 [interquartile range (IQR): 47.0-63.0] years and the median time to surgery was 34.0 (IQR: 26.0-42.0) days. In addition, when comparing the pathological status, it was found that the three groups were not significantly different based on histopathological and surgical characteristics, except for the pathological stage (P = 0.025).</p> <p>Conclusion: Time to surgery did not influence on histopathological response of patients with gastric cancer.</p> Amin Alinezhad*, Mohammad Shirkhoda*, Amirmohsen Jalaeefar, Amirhossein Poopak, Arian Javidi Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological study of head, neck and spinal cord trauma in West Azerbaijan province and predicting the severity of injuries using “Revised Trauma Score” among injured people <p>Background: Score Injury Severity (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) can provide a figure to predict the patient mortality rate. RTS,&nbsp; a physiological examination, is helpful to examine trauma patients.This study aimed to assess the rpidemiology of head, neck and spinal cord trauma using RTS among injured people.</p> <p>Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 6336 traumatic patients living in West Azerbaijan province during 2019-2023. The data collected through “West Azerbaijan province's national trauma registration program” were demographic and trauma-related variables like age, sex, marital status, education, trauma mechanism, occupation, vital signs, verbal, visual, and motor Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). RTS criteria was used to predict the patients’ status.</p> <p>Results: Mean age of the patients was 33.39years, and 71.9% of the patients (N=4557) were male. The majority of the patients (24.1%, N=1531) had primary eduation following illiteracy (23.8%, N=1507). The most common cause of the traum was road traffic accidents (38.3%, N=2429) following fall (23.1%, N=1461). Regarding car safty, only 6.2% patients (N=391) had fasten safty belt. None of the patients used child seat. At the time of accident, 0.7% (N=47) reported the correct performance of airbag. In motorcycles, 0.8% (N=52) reported the use of helmet.&nbsp; Mean blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, spo2 and GCS score was 116.75±17.62, 86.99±31.67, 16.74±2.98, 95.02±10.52, 14.70±1.79, respectively. The ISS and RTS had directly reverse correlation (r=-0.393, P&lt;0.001). Age (P&lt;0.001), Spo2 (P=0.003) and ISS (P&lt;0.001) were good predictor for RTS. Patients who died had higher ISS score showing bad situation of the injured patients as well as RTS in patients who died were lower compared to non-expired patients (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Use of RTS and ISS can predict the final status of the injuired patients but RTS considers more vital signs involved in the life of the patients.</p> Hamid Hosseinpour, Bahlool Rahimi, Hadi Lotfnejad Afshar, Vahid Hosseinpour, Roholloh Valizadeh Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Left Ectopic Pelvic Kidney With Calculi In Five Calyces With Long Infundibulum Opening In Small Pelvis With Pelviureteric Junction Obstruction: A Rare Case <p>Pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) affects urine flow from the renal pelvis to the ureter and is sometimes associated with calculus disease, pyelonephritis or renal failure. PUJO affects 1 in 20,000 people per year and can be caused by congenital or acquired factors. Surgery is recommended for PUJO when symptoms or complications are present. Ectopic kidneys, which fail to ascend from the pelvis to the renal fossa, can lead to hydronephrosis, reflux, PUJO, and nephrolithiasis. We report a case of a 35-year-old female with a left ectopic kidney with PUJO with calculi which was managed by open pyelolithotomy with pyeloplasty. The patient had no surgical history or comorbidity. CT scans suggested a left-sided ectopic pelvic kidney with anteriorly facing pelvis, hydronephrosis, and multiple calculi. Even though congenital anomalies are rare, urologists might get such patients in day-to-day practice who may require surgical management. The patient can be given complete stone clearance and symptom improvements through adequate imaging and appropriate planning.</p> Dr. Abhirudra Mulay, Dr. Ashish Gavade, Dr. Vikram Satav, Dr. Vilas Sabale, Dr. Shashikant Asabe, Dr. Prabhav Agarwal* Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Calotropis gigantea Extract in Restoring Vaginal Health: A Comprehensive Study on its Antimicrobial and Healing Properties <p>Objective: The prevalence of vaginal infections and pH imbalance among women has become a growing concern, leading to various diseases such as vaginitis and urinary tract infections. One traditional medicinal plant, Calotropis gigantea (mandar), possesses a range of beneficial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. We aimed to explore the potential of Calotropis gigantea, we embarked on a comprehensive research project.</p> <p>Methods: Our study began with the collection of plant samples and vaginal flora samples from a diverse group of 100 women, including both rural and urban populations. Isolation of bacterial strains from the collected vaginal flora samples, representing both positive and negative strains associated with vaginal infections and pH imbalance. Subjected the isolated bacterial strains to qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine the antibacterial activity of Calotropis gigantea. Conducted a DPPH test to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the Calotropis gigantea plant extract and analyzed the phytochemicals present in Calotropis gigantea using suitable analytical techniques.</p> <p>Results: The antibacterial activity analysis revealed the potential of Calotropis gigantea in inhibiting the growth of bacterial strains associated with vaginal infections and pH imbalance.</p> <p>The DPPH test demonstrated the antioxidant properties of the plant extract, suggesting its ability to combat oxidative stress. Phytochemical analysis identified specific compounds in Calotropis gigantea that may contribute to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.</p> <p>Conclusion: The results of this test have laid the foundation for our future work, specifically in the development of products such as herbal intimate washes and related cosmetics. Additionally, we seek to identify the phytochemicals present in this plant and explore their potential in combating vaginal pathogens while restoring a healthy vaginal flora balance.</p> <p>By harnessing the beneficial properties of Calotropis gigantea, we aspire to develop safe and effective natural products that can promote women's health and well-being.</p> Richa Shahwal, Ashish Dadsena, Shalini Pandey, Seema Verma, Akansha Thakur, Deepika Sahu, Kulvinder Kaur, Girish Sahu, Mukesh Sharma, Arunima Sur* Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of lifestyle modification counselling on the body mass index of children: A school based analytical study <p>Background and objectives: Childhood obesity is a major contributor to the NCD burden in this age group. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle modification counselling on body mass index of children. Methods: This was a non-randomized, interventional, behavioural modification study conducted in a tertiary care health facility in the southern part of India for a period of one year between July 2018 and June 2019. The study included school going children of both gender (1:1) in the age group of 7 to 12 years with a body mass index equal to or more than the 85th percentile for age and gender (in accordance with the International Obesity task force 2000). Results: The proportion of children overweight were 57.4% and obese were 42.6%. The number of children performing physical activity less than an hour was 81.0% before intervention; reduced to 34.7% after intervention – a statistically significant reduction (p&lt;0.05). Similarly, we found that children watching TV for more than an hour significantly reduced (83.7% vs 26.3%); children playing computer and/or video games for more than an hour significantly reduced (14.3% vs 3.0%); proportion of children having excess calorie intake significantly reduced (87.0% vs 17.3%); proportion of children skipping breakfast significantly reduced (35.3% vs 3.7%); proportion of children consuming junk food for more than or equal to two time per week significantly reduced (62.3% vs 24.3%); and the proportion of children snacking during TV for more than or equal to two times per week significantly reduced post intervention (56.0% vs 21.0%). Conclusion: Lifestyle modification counselling has shown promise in addressing childhood obesity, with studies demonstrating positive effects on BMI reduction and overall health improvement.</p> Dr Gnanamani Gnanasabai, Dr Ramalingam Sukumar, Dr Muthulakshmi R, Dr Gnanamani Gnanasabai, Dr Ramalingam Sukumar, Dr Muthulakshmi R Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy and life review therapy on depression and quality of life for elderly <p>Background: The literature suggests the increasing application of&nbsp; mindfulness&nbsp; based&nbsp; cognitive therapy and life review therapy on depression and quality of life for elderly.</p> <p>Objective: The purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness&nbsp; based&nbsp; cognitive therapy and life review therapy on depression and the quality of life for the elderly.</p> <p>Methods:&nbsp; The statistical population of the research included all elderly people 60 and older in Tehran. Among the above society, 8 elderly people were selected based on available sampling based on the goal and were randomly divided into two groups of four people to receive mindfulness based cognitive therapy interventions&nbsp; and life review. The study method in this research was a single-case experiment experimental design. Depression and quality of life questionnaires were used for data collection.</p> <p>Results: The results of the research indicated that both methods significantly decrease the depression of the elderly and increase the quality of&nbsp; life of the elderly.</p> <p>Conclusions: The results of data analysis showed both methods are effectives Thus, the effectiveness of the two therapy methods has been stable for all subjects in the follow-up phase. According to the results of this research, it is possible to use mindfulness&nbsp; based&nbsp; cognitive therapy and life review to reduce depression and increase the quality of life of the elderly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Samad Azizi, Jalal Younesi* ,Manoochehr Azkhosh, Mohammad Saeed Khanjani, Akbar Biglarian Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A study on the association between demographic and clinical characteristics of ectopic pregnancy cases and treatment outcomes <p>Purpose: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a life-threatening condition and a significant cause of maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to find out association between demographic and clinical characteristics of EP patients and treatment outcomes, success rate of methotrexate (MTX) therapy and the need for surgical intervention.</p> <p>Methods: This was a retrospective study of 821 EP cases attended to Kamali Hospital, Karaj, Iran between April 2015 to March 2020. Medical records of all cases were reviewed and following parameters were extracted: sociodemographic characteristics, ultrasonography findings, treatment methods, laboratory data of β hCG concentrations on day 0, 4 and 7 after initiation of treatment.</p> <p>Results: Our results indicated that β-hCG concentration upon EP diagnosis was the only associated factor with the degree of β-hCG decline during days 4-7 after treatment initiation. In addition, β-hCG initial concentration, presence of peritoneal effusion and size of adnexal mass had association with success of MTX treatment and predicted the need for surgery. Most of cases who experienced a 15%≤ decline in β-hCG during days 4-7 after treatment initiation needed no surgery. Furthermore, single-dose MTX therapy was the most successful approach and the mean time for β-hCG clearance was the shortest in the cases who received single dose of MTX.</p> <p>Conclusion: Collectively, initial β-hCG concentration, size of adnexal mass and peritoneal effusion may be important predictors in choosing the best treatment for EP cases and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for patients who desire fertility preservation, and avoid side effects of EP.</p> Maryam Hashemnejad, Shima Mohammadian, Sara Esmaelzade Saeieh, Zahra Pishgahi, Mina Ataei, Souzan Soufizadeh Balaneji, Behnood Farazmand Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Can laparoscopic removal of deep infiltrating endometriosis lesions before the frozen embryo transfer cycle improve pregnancy outcomes in patients with recurrent implantation failure? <p>Background: To evaluate the impact of laparoscopic surgery before the frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle on pregnancy outcomes in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) suffering from stage IIIIV and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).</p> <p>Methods and Materials: In this historical cohort study, the medical records of 121 patients with stage III and IV endometriosis and a history of RIF were evaluated. Patients included endometriosis and RIF patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis treatment before the FET cycle (surgery group, n = 63) and endometriosis and RIF patients who refused laparoscopic surgery had decided to have surgery to treat endometriosis (control group, n = 58). Both groups were selected after review of medical records using an observational (non-interventional) approach. Follow-up interviews with outpatients were conducted to record pregnancy outcomes.</p> <p>Results: The results showed that laparoscopic removal of endometriotic lesions 4-6 months before FET cycles could significantly prolong the ongoing pregnancy (OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.2-6.6). Live birth rates (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 0.97-4.97) in stage III-IV RIF and DIE patients. Subgroup analysis revealed that pregnancy and live birth rates did not improve in women with anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) &lt;0.7 ng/mL (p = 0.025).</p> <p>Conclusion: Excisional laparoscopic surgery may be a useful approach to improve pregnancy outcome in RIF endometriosis patients undergoing FET cycles.</p> Soheila Arefi, Khadijeh Shadjoo*, Mina Ataei, Arash Mohazzab, Hossein Hosseinirad, Roya Padmehr*, Soheila Arefi, Khadijeh Shadjoo*, Mina Ataei, Arash Mohazzab, Hossein Hosseinirad, Roya Padmehr* Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a Grief Treatment Protocol Tailored to COVID-19 Bereaved Individuals by Incorporating Relevant Factors <p>The purpose of the present study is to develop the content of a treatment protocol for grief based on factors related to it for COVID-19 mourners. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of method. The present study was conducted using the thematic analysis method among qualitative methods. To collect data, select analysis sources (individuals who had lost one of their first degree relatives (father, mother, sister or brother) due to corona), define and identify the research variable (factors related to grief), analysis sources (Tehran residents who had lost one of their first degree relatives (father, mother, sister or brother) due to corona) were selected, interviewed and finally analysis units were categorized. 8 sessions of integrated grief therapy were designed and then its validity was evaluated based on the American Psychological Association's guidelines for evaluating therapeutic guidelines and the 42-question questionnaire for evaluating treatment sessions by professors and specialists. Data were analyzed using content validity index and content validity ratio. The content validity index was 1 and the content validity ratio was 1, indicating the validity of the sessions. Therefore, integrated grief therapy was valid both in terms of the theoretical model of treatment and in terms of session content, and can be used as a treatment for those experiencing grief in crisis.</p> Farnoosh Khaledi Alamdari, Roya Koochakentezar*, Fatemeh Golshani, Abbas Zabihzadeh Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Drug Utilization Evaluation Of Antidiabetic Agents On Renal Dialysis Patients In Multi-Specialty Tertiary Care Hospital, Bangalore, India <p>Objective : The present study is aimed to study the utilization of anti-diabetic agents in the Department of Nephrology among hospitalized diabetic patients with CKD.</p> <p>Methodology:&nbsp; The study was designed as a prospective observational in a multi-specialty tertiary care hospital in Bangalore, India. Detailed patient information was obtained from the patient’s case sheet, including patient demographics, diagnosis, and history of medical and medication details. The laboratory data details like blood pressure values, blood glucose values, etc. were noted down, documented in a suitably designed patient data collection form, and analyzed for utilization patterns concerning anti-diabetic drugs.</p> <p>Result:&nbsp; Out of 90 patients, (79%) were male and (21%) were female. Maximum patients belonged to the age group of (50-59) years. The most frequently used non-insulin medication classes included biguanides (metformin), sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and DPP-4 inhibitors. Insulin is the oldest and highly used of the currently available medications and, therefore, the treatment with which we have the most clinical experience. Among the available oral antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and glinides are associated with a risk of hypoglycemia.</p> <p>Conclusion: The use of particular antidiabetic medications in patients with CKD changed noticeably over the years, most following guidelines and regulatory decisions. Gaps in the quality of care still exist, which warrants increasing awareness and implementing programs to mitigate inappropriate use.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MohammadHadi MosallaNezhad*, Jelveh Jadidi, Kiran Nagaraju, Sunil R Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Tetanus Vaccination Coverage of Pregnant Mothers in Kashmar and the Reasons for Their Refusal to be Vaccinated <p>Introduction: Tetanus vaccination of mothers reduces the mortality rate of babies, so it is important to check the status of tetanus vaccination of mothers during pregnancy. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the coverage of tetanus vaccination of pregnant mothers and the reasons for their non-referral on time in Kashmar city in 2022.</p> <p>Materials and methods:In this descriptive-analytical study, 384 urban and rural pregnant mothers were randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a questionnaire made by the researcher, which examined demographic information, the coverage of tetanus vaccination before and during pregnancy, and the reasons for mothers' non-referral for vaccination. The obtained data were analyzed using Spss22 software and Chi-2, T-test and Tukey statistical tests.</p> <p>Findings:There was no significant difference between urban and rural mothers in terms of vaccination status before pregnancy and adherence to the recommended time interval between two vaccinations during pregnancy, but there was a difference in terms of the time of referral for the first vaccination during pregnancy, so that mothers In urban areas, their referrals were more at the recommended time, the vaccination status of urban mothers was higher than that of rural mothers for two occasions. The most common reasons for not vaccinating on time were: insufficient information of mothers and employees and distance from health centers.</p> <p>Conclusion:By providing necessary training to mothers and employees and increasing the number of centers, the vaccination coverage of mothers will be improved.</p> Reza Besharati Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Why Are Patients Dissatisfied with Hospital Services? How Satisfied Are They with Such Services? (Case Study: Shahid Kamyab Hospital of Mashhad) <p>Introduction: In hospitals, patients expect services provided competently. The question is, are these expectations met in Iranian hospitals, and are hospitalized patients satisfied with these services? If not, what are the reasons for their dissatisfaction? This study examined the satisfaction of hospitalized patients with the services provided in Kamyab Hospital (affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) and the reasons for their dissatisfaction.</p> <p>Methodology: In 2021, this descriptive-analytical study randomly investigated 136 patients admitted to Kamyab University Hospital of Mashhad. The data were collected using the standard questionnaire by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Its content validity was verified, and its reliability was estimated based on a Cronbach's alpha of 95%. The data were then analyzed in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS-22.</p> <p>Findings: In total, 9.5% of patients were completely satisfied, 73.5% were satisfied, 5.9% were dissatisfied, and 0.7% were completely dissatisfied with the overall hospital services. Dissatisfaction with various services was mostly attributed to facilities provided to companions (42.1%), the sum paid to the hospital (25.8%), round-the-clock unavailability of necessary medications and consumables (25.4%), nurses’ assistance to patients (22.2%), and the gap between checks by the attending physician (18.4%). The chi-square statistical results showed no significant correlation of satisfaction with age, gender, marital status, education, suggestions about patient care, economic status, payment method of hospital fees, duration of hospitalization, and the number of visits to the hospital.</p> <p>Conclusion: The results showed that most patients are satisfied with hospital services. Based on customer orientation, hospital authorities can identify the issues that satisfy and dissatisfy patients based on continuous surveys and act to address the weaknesses and promote the strengths.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Reza Besharati Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determining Adolescents’ Sexual Health Needs in Sirjan County; Iran <p>Adolescents’ sexual health needs cover a variety of subjects regarding sexual principles and behaviors. The present study was conducted to determine adolescents’ sexual health needs. Thirteen school-going adolescents and 44 informed subjects were evaluated using individual face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and two group interviews and then analyzed using the content analysis approach. The findings were categorized in seven categories: educational, family, information source, social interactions related, school, leisure time and occupational and religious needs. Identifying this needs will be important for planning and policy-making for meeting the needs and improving the overall health status of this population.</p> Fatemeh Daneshfara, Masood Yunesianb, Zahra Motaghic*, Sara Amaniyand Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Correlative Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Informational Booklet On Knowledge And Attitude Of Mothers Regarding Sibling Rivalry And Its Prevention Among Under Five Children In Selected Urban Community, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh <p>Sibling rivalry is a type of competition or animosity among siblings, whether blood – related or not children feel they are getting unequal amounts of attention. Sibling rivalry is particularly heightened when children are very close in age and of the same gender or where one child is intellectually possessed.</p> <p>The sample was selected by using Non probability Convenience Sampling Technique. The sample size was 60 among mothers of under five children of selected urban community Kalyanpur, Kanpur.&nbsp; The data was collected by using self-knowledge questionnaire and Likert attitude scale. The result of the study showed that mean and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test level of knowledge among mothers of under five children is 11.36 ± 24.03 and 2.72 ± 2.52. the obtained “t” value is 17.49 with 59 degree of freedom was higher than the table value 2.00 with p value &lt; 0.05. this shows that there is no association between pre-test and post- test knowledge regarding sibling rivalry.</p> <p>The result of the study showed that mean and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test level of attitude among mothers of under five-year children is 21.43 ± 36.13 and 8.21 ± 6.01. the obtained “t” value is 19.75 with 59 degree of freedom was higher than the table value 2.00 with p value &lt; 0.05. this shows that there is no association between pre-test and post- test attitude regarding sibling rivalry.</p> <p>There is a correlation between knowledge and attitude score.</p> <p>The study was concluded that there was an effectiveness of information booklet on Knowledge and attitude regarding sibling rivalry among mothers of under five children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Richa Pal, Shikha Pal, Sheelu Yadav, Prof. Dr. B. Archana* Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of autogenic relaxation therapy on stress, anxiety and depression among mothers of special children <p>There is no role in life that is more essential than that of motherhood. Mothers of children with special needs are frequently exhausted and sad. Their time and self-care resources are significantly depleted compared to ordinary parents. To stay on track in the race of caring for a special needs kid, it is vital that moms, as primary caregivers, respond to their own needs by engaging in various relaxation methods. Autogenic relaxation therapy focuses on creating feelings of relaxation and peace in your body in order to reduce psychological suffering. Aim: Effect of autogenic relaxation therapy on stress, anxiety and depression among mothers of special children in selected special school at, Puducherry. Methodology: Quantitative Research approach with True Experimental Research design was adapted among 20 mothers of special children in experimental and control group each and were chosen by Simple Random Sampling Technique who has fulfilled Sampling Criteria. Demographic characteristic and The pretest and post test level of depression, anxiety and stress was measured by using becks depression inventory, becks anxiety inventory and berry and jonnes parental stress scale for both experimental and control group&nbsp; and&nbsp; an autogenic relaxation therapy was provided twice in a week for 8 subsequent weeks and the post test was done at the end of 12th week&nbsp; . The total autogenic relaxation session for one participant lasts for about 20-25 minutes for experimental group only. The study participants of control group were wait listed till the time duration of data collection and the Autogenic RT has been provided after the post test assessment. Results: The study results revealed that after providing Autogenic relaxation therapy in experimental group the mean score of stress, anxiety and depression has been reduced to 27.9%, 37.12 % and 36% when comparing between 1 week and 12 week whereas in control group the mean scores of stress, anxiety and depression has been increased to 1.19%, 8.23% and 3.74% respectively.&nbsp; Conclusion: On the basis of the results drawn from 20 mothers of experimental group and 20 mothers of control group, the study findings shows that autogenic relaxation therapy was discovered to be useful in lowering the level of stress, anxiety and depression among mothers of special children.</p> Sivaranjiny K, Sivaranjiny K, Dr. M. Partheeban, Dr. P. Vetriselvi Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A study to assess the level of knowledge on management of seizure for children Among staff Nurses in SMVMCH, at Puducherry <p>“Children are one third of our population and all of our future”. A healthy child is a gift of our nation by god, as nurses we should promote, protect and prevent the child from disease. This period is very valuable and joyful period in a person’s life. Most of the study reveals that many children are suffering from seizure disorder. Nursing intervention involves assessment and follow-up care, which is the nurse's responsibility. A seizure occurs when your brain is suddenly electrically stimulated without your control. Changes in behavior, movements, and feelings, as well as in consciousness levels, can be caused by it.</p> L. Saraswathi*, Prof. Dr.R.Danasu Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bibliometric analysis of grape seed extract in Dentistry <p>Objective: To perform the bibliometric analysis for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of publications on grape seed extract (GSE). The research productivity can be measured with the use of bibliometric analysis.</p> <p>Methodology: An extensive search was done in Scopus using the keywords “biological effects of grape seed extract in dentistry” on July 20, 2022. Among 1018 articles, 50 cited articles were considered. Vosviewer software and Excel sheet were used to analyse authorship, keywords and co-occurrence.</p> <p>Result: Based upon the analysis among the top 50 referenced articles, Dr Bedran Russo AK has the highest link strength of about 37, The United States had the most referenced articles of about 24 in the year 2014, and the occurrence of keywords had been done. Proanthocyanidin had the most occurrence about 31, the highest cited article with a citation count of about 246 done by Petti s et al.</p> <p>Conclusion: The naturally extracted products have less cytotoxicity compared to the other commercially available products. This bibliometric analysis paves the way to fellow researchers for the usage of GSE in dentistry</p> <p>Clinical significance: The bibliometric study provides useful information on research trends in terms of the total number of publications on grape seed extract. It also identifies the top nations and institutions involved in gape seed extract usage in dentistry and provides a comprehensive overview of researchers in this subject.</p> Dr. Neshkumar Kanagagiri Loganathan Senthilkumar, Dr. Sujitha Ponraj, Dr. Kavitha Ramar, Dr.Victor Samuel Andiyappan, Dr. RajaKumar Sekar, Dr. Anand Kasi Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross-Sectional Study To Assess The Factors Affecting Sleep Hygiene Among College Students <p>An essential biological need for human life, sleep plays an important role in maintaining physical, mental and emotional health. The complex process of sleep includes memory consolidation, learning, decision making, critical thinking, modulation of the immune system, restoration of physiological functions, and homeostasis and regulation of body temperature. However, several factors such as age, work demands, physiological and psychological characteristics, mental and physical illnesses can disrupt the sleep cycle. Promote good sleep. it is necessary to observe sleep hygiene practices. Unfortunately, students often neglect the importance of sleep hygiene, which leads to poor sleep quality and negative effects on academic performance and cognitive performance.</p> <p>This study aims to assess the factors affecting sleep hygiene among college students and identify the prevalence and determinants of poor sleep quality. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1050 college students using purposive sampling technique. The study population consisted of undergraduate and postgraduate students from various departments, including Engineering, Arts and Science, Medical and Paramedical, Law, Architecture, among others. Participants were assessed using standardized tools.</p> <p>The results revealed that sleep hygiene and several factors, including gender and daytime sleepiness, were associated with poorer sleep quality among participants. The study highlights the need to raise awareness of the importance of sleep quality and its impact on well-being and academic performance. By teaching students proper sleep hygiene practices, it improves their mind-body connection and leads to academic and personal improvement.</p> Marjorie Miraclin K, Sameena Parveen Nizam, Harshini. R, Nithyashree. H, Pradeep. B, Kiswar pretty. H Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Predicting Depression Among Students On Entrance Exams Using An Optimised Deep Learning Approach <p>Amid the vast world of Indian education, where many students aspire to become engineers and doctors, the relentless pursuit of academic success often comes at a high cost. As students prepare for crucial entrance exams that will determine their future, there is a growing concern - the increasing problem of student depression. With intense academic competition and societal pressure, many young students are struggling with the stress and emotional burden of exam preparation. Entrance exams have become an integral part of the Indian education landscape.</p> Dr.J.Dafni Rose, Gunavathie M A, Dr.R.KOTTEESWARAN, R. Meena, Dr.A.Manonmani, Dr.R.Thiagarajan, Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Simulation on Real World Problem Using an Integrated MCDM - AWMAC Method for Ranking Alternatives in Fuzzy Optimization <p>The objective of real-world problems comes with two major complexities, namely one with the fixed set of data with high-dimensions and the other with uncertain parameters of high- dimension data set. Fuzzy Interval Value plays a significant role in designing the problem with unsure decision parameters. The constraints which are with more uncertainty within a particular limit can be expressed in terms of Fuzzy Interval Values. The most appropriate method of expressing imprecise data is Fuzzy Interval Values comparing that of Destined Values.&nbsp; Optimization using FIV sets requires an exact technique which can hold and solve the inexact data set. Interval arithmetic with fuzzy logic is one of the techniques that encompass the parameters and constraints of the problem. FIV optimization is widely applied in designing, marketing and finance, project lining and choice making with a proper definition from the choice makers. Here our grail is to give the optimal solution for the objectives. That is to cluster the number of the alternatives which leads into the minimization of time constraint of the analyzed data in the ranking process. The parameters of the defined data set are having more uncertainty inside the boundary values fixed by the laboratory. For rule depletion and parametric modulation fuzzy average interval valued membership function will be the best option to get an optimized closeness of alternatives. This paper proposed an integrated method of Additive Weightage of Maximized Alternate Closeness. AWMAC in Fuzzy Interval Valued sets and the order preference is compared with the results in EDAS method.</p> Jaleesha B K, Shenbaga Ezhil S, Ravikumar Jayabal Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Midlife Crisis Research and Its Relation to Depression and Psychological Capital Research <p>This cross-sectional study aims to examine midlife crisis and its relationship to emotional distress and the PsyCap (PsyCap) Correlation in middle-aged adults. A midlife crisis is a life transition marked by insight, major emotional changes, and emotional uncertainty and anxiety. Psycap includes positive psychological traits such as self-efficacy, optimism, resilience, and hope. This study was carried out on 500 citizens aged between 35-50 at A.C.S Medical College and Hospital. Participants were selected using convenience sampling and data were collected through an appropriate questionnaire. The results showed that midlife problems were rare, with only 3.20% of participants experiencing midlife problems. Stress awareness was high at 63.00%, indicating severe anxiety. The PsyCap component is broad, and most people show optimism, resilience, and optimism. The relationship between midlife crisis and perceived stress and the role of psychological capital are explored. Results showed a weak association between midlife crisis and psychological capital.</p> Marjorie Miraclin K, Sameena Parveen Nizam, Harshini.R, Nithyashree.H, Pradeep .B, Kiswar pretty H Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Cross Sectional Study To Assess The Prevalence Of Migraine In Relation With Depression <p>This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of migraine-related depression in a sample of 1050 people. Quantitative research and non-experimental research are used in this study. Data were collected at ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, covering both urban and rural areas. The study population included participants diagnosed with migraine who admitted to OPD for treatment, and individuals with migraine and depression. The frequency of migraine is classified according to different disability levels and ranges from 42 for mild disability.</p> <p>3%, 12.6% mildly, 19.3% moderately and 25.8% severely disabled. In addition, the distribution of participants by age and gender was also examined.</p> <p>The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression in the cases. The findings show that there are more migraines in women and between the ages of 20 and 30. Additionally, the severity of the disability is more associated with migraine. This study highlights the importance of considering mental health conditions such as depression when treating migraine. Doctors need to get a good idea to solve the migraine and depression problem in one's life.</p> Marjorie Miraclin K, Sameena Parveen Nizam, Prakash J, Sornambigai K.N, Sneha V, Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Evaluation of Chitosan Biopolymer Permeated Nanohydroxyapatite Composite Loaded with Copper and Gold Metal Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Regeneration <p>The emphasis of current tissue engineering research is on the fabrication of innovative ceramic/polymer composite materials envisaging scaffolds with enhanced tissue regenerative efficacy and osteoconductivity. In this study, hydroxyapatite a bioceramic and organic polymer chitosan renowned for their biocompatibility and bioactivity are amalgamated to synthesize a nanocomposite via sol gel method.&nbsp; Further, the infusion of copper /gold metal nanoparticles in the biocomposite are executed to augment physicochemical properties, promote cellular interaction, viability and antimicrobial efficacy. The physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of synthesized pure hydroxyapatite and its composites are evaluated. Visible broadening of XRD diffractogram peaks on composite assembly evinces bonds linking the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with the chitosan matrix.&nbsp; The UV-Vis absorptions and the&nbsp;&nbsp; functional groups identified from the FTIR spectra substantiate the formation of pure hydroxyapatite and its metal infused composites with chitosan. Surface morphology evaluated by HR-SEM reveals the suppression of the rod-shaped morphology of hydroxyapatite on composite formation. Fabricated composites display enhanced antibacterial activity primarily due to the chelating nature of the cationic functional groups in chitosan-metal complexes as evidenced from the well diffusion analysis. Antifungal potency against C.albicans is found to be impressive. Reduced antioxidant activity of synthesized composites, evaluated by DPPH free radicals scavenging analysis was attributed to intra- and inter- hydrogen bond networks on composite formation. The non-toxicity of synthesized samples against normal L929 (Mouse Fibroblast) cell line was established via MTT assay method.</p> Rajeswari Gangadharan, Aparnadevi Natarajan*, Sakshi Joshi A and Jerline A Ethiraj Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Machine Learning based Identification of Spices: A Case Study of Chilli <p>Chilli is one of the important spices and commonly adulterated for the economic gain. Manual identification is time-taking, expensive and needs experience expert which are often limited available. To deal with these issues, demand for the non-destructive methods for measuring the quality of the spices such as machine learning based automatic model were the main motives behind this study. This research paper presents the development of a deep machine learning model for the identification of chilli using a combination of convolutional neural network (CNN) and MobileNetV2 as a transfer learning model. An image dataset comprising of 4000 chilli spice images was created and made available online to create a reference database which has been further divided in 7:3 in training and validation datasets. To overcome the challenge of large datasets, transfer learning was employed during model formation. The developed model achieved an impressive accuracy of 97.97% on training dataset, demonstrating its ability to correctly classify chilli spice samples. The confusion matrix provided insights into the model's classification results, showing a higher accuracy in identifying chilli spice. Although some misclassifications occurred, the training and validation accuracy data demonstrated the model's learning progress, reaching a validation accuracy of 98.7% by the 14th epoch. The developed CNN-MobileNetV2 model showcased excellent performance, offering reliability and accuracy in chilli spice classification. Moreover, the proposed model can be extended to identify other spices with similar visual characteristics, which would have significant implications in the spice industry.</p> Subh Naman, Sanyam Sharma, Ashish Baldi* Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Functional Efficacy Of Various Light Curing Unit In Dental Clinics <p>Background: Light-curing units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental practice as they are required for resin-based composites, luting cements and adhesives. The present study was conducted to assess the functional efficacy of various light‑curing units (LCUs)in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in two types of light curing unit i.e. light‑emitting diodes (LEDs) and quartz–tungsten–halogen (QTH). Frequency of LCUs, satisfaction, intensity and frequency of bulb replacement were also recorded. Results: Out of 80 LCUs, 27 were QTH and 53 were LED . The mean intensity of QTH was 412.12 W/cm2and of LED was 614.86 W/cm2. The difference was significant (P &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: The light intensity of LED units is significantly higher than that of QTH light curing units and the frequency of bulb replacement&nbsp; in QTHs was more than in LEDs.</p> Dr Prachi Singh, Dr.Neha Rathore, Dr. Madhulika Yadav, Dr.Chandan Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hand injuries presenting to the department of Emergency Medicine: A hospital based descriptive study <p>Aim and Objectives: The aim was to describe the hand injuries presenting to the Emergency Medicine department of a tertiary healthcare facility. The study describes the hand injuries in terms of etiology, mechanism of injuries, trends of ED management, including analgesia and tetanus prophylaxis. Methods: This was a hospital based descriptive study of hand injuries conducted in the Department of Emergency Medicine, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India (tertiary healthcare facility) between October 2022 and September 2023. Results: The present study included a total of 400 patients presenting with hand injuries. The mean (SD) age was 29.43 years (3.81); with 90.8% being males. The mean (SD) delay in presentation was 2.7 hours (0.3). Overall, the mode and mechanism of hand injuries were occupational, or workplace related and were of crushing type. Majority of the patients (65.5%), required NSAIDS for analgesia, followed by narcotic analgesia (26.8%) and local analgesia (7.0%), in that order. Only 0.7% were not given any form of analgesia. Tetanus Toxoid (TT) was given to 92.3% patients. Tetanus immunoglobulin was given to 4.5% patients. A total of 22.2% amputations were noted irrespective of their level or whether they are partial or complete. More than half (55.8%) had no lacerations; 82.0% had no fractures; 97.3% had no dislocation; 86.0% had no tendon injuries; 98.5% had no nerve injuries; and 79.2% had no fingertip injuries. It was found that 87.2% patients had adequate vascularity. Conclusion: This study provides valuable insights into the characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with hand injuries presenting to the Emergency Medicine department. The findings reveal a diverse spectrum of hand injuries, including amputations, lacerations, fractures, dislocations, tendon and nerve injuries, and fingertip injuries.</p> Dr Arunkumaar S,* Dr Nithyaraj R, Dr Kirubashankaran E Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 GC-MS Analysis and Anti-microbial Potential of Prunus ceylanica (Wight) Miq.: An Endangered Plant in India <p>Prunus ceylanica (Wight) Miq. is an endangered plant in India. It is imperative to explore the phytochemical composition and biological activities of this species. In this study, we employed GC-MS analysis to identify and characterize the phytochemical compounds present in Prunus ceylanica. Additionally, we evaluated its anti-microbial properties against microbial strains namely Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-737), Escherichia coli (MTCC-452), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-2297), Aspergillus flavus (MTCC-873) and Candida tropicalis (MTCC-1406). Methanol, Ethyl acetate and Acetone solvents extracts obtained from different parts of the plant were subjected to GC-MS analysis using an electron impact ionization technique. A comprehensive analysis of the obtained spectra revealed the presence of 29 phytochemical compounds in this plant. Notably, 29 of these compounds have been previously identified with known biological activities. The identified compounds belong to diverse chemical classes, including alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and ketones. Interestingly, some of the fragmentation patterns observed in this species were described for the first time, indicating the unique phytochemical profile of P. ceylanica. The results demonstrated promising anti-microbial activity, suggesting that this endangered plant possesses potent bioactive compounds. In conclusion, our study utilizing GC-MS analysis elucidated the phytochemical composition of P. ceylanica and unveiled its anti-microbial potential. These results contribute to the understanding of the medicinal properties of this endangered plant, emphasizing the importance of its conservation and providing insights for future drug development and biotechnological applications.</p> D. Sandhya Deepika, S.Ravi Kiran*, Mandru Ramesh Chowdary, Vinay Kumar Gera, Y.T Rajesh Babu Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Engineering of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum for production the nisA as a natural antibacterial protein <p>Currently, researchers are exploring the capability of lactic acid bacteria to produce therapeutic molecules through the use of living microorganisms. This study aims to clone the <em>nisA</em> gene in <em>Lactobacillus</em> <em>plantarium</em>. The process involves isolating the <em>nisA</em> gene from <em>Lactococcus</em> <em>lactis</em> and transferring it to a pET-21a(+) plasmid. To achieve this, PCR fragment carrying the <em>nisA</em> gene and plasmid were predigested by <em>Bam</em>HI and <em>Hin</em>dIII restriction enzymes in appropriate reaction enzyme buffer. To increase the number of plasmids, they were cloned in <em>E. coli</em> DH5α.&nbsp; Afterward, electroporation was used to transfer the plasmid into <em>L. plantarium</em>. Following this, the transformants were grown in a culture medium that contained ampicillin. Only those bacteria with the pET-21a(+) plasmid were able to grow due to their possession of the ampicillin resistance gene. Sequencing was performed on the obtained clones, confirming the presence of the desired gene. PCR reaction was used to confirm the cloning, and the study demonstrated that nisin protein can be expressed functionally in <em>L.</em> <em>plantarium</em>, increasing its antimicrobial activity. Finally, to enhance the antimicrobial activity of <em>L. plantarum</em>, we performed the transfer of the <em>nisA</em> gene from <em>L. lactis</em> to <em>L. plantarum</em> for the first time by cloning and expression.</p> Mohsen Ali Ahmad, Amir Tukmechi*, Abdulghaffar Ownagh Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of dental compensation in various skeletal malocclusions: A cephalometric study <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental compensation in Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study included lateral cephalograms of 60 Skeletal malocclusion in which subjects divided into three groups with 20 subjects in each group i.e. Class I, Class II and Class III respectively. The angular measurements using 10 variables were used to determine the relationship between the cranial base and mandible in subjects. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significantly stronger correlation between anterior-posterior skeletal relation and maxillary alveolar bone compensation in skeletal class I, II, and III malocclusion. Conclusion:&nbsp; There may be a relationship between alveolar bone changes and skeletal anteroposterior and vertical position, inclination and interincisal relationship.</p> Dr. Arunesh Singh, *Dr. Rishibha Bhardwaj, Dr. Monis Raza, Dr. Ruchi Saini, Dr. Komal Punia, Dr. Isha S Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 05 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation, characterization and insilico screening of an antidiabetic compound from flaveria trinervia (spreng.) C.mohr <p>The isolated compound from the ethanolic extract of Flaveria trinervia (Asteraceae) was found to be (Z)-4-hydroxy-2-((4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methylene)-6 methylbenzofuran-3(2H)-one. The characterization done by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and LC-mass spectral studies performed in the isolated compound. Flaveria trinervia ethanolic extract studied for in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic and in vivo antidiabetic activity. With this isolated compound molecular drug designing study purpose is to provide insight on the binding propensities of target 2Q5S, 2Q5S, 2QMJ, 2ZJ3, 5HHW, 1ZON with ligands such as acarbose, glibenclamide, Ligand-L1, metformin, sitagliptin. In order to have a proper docking to predict the efficiency of ligand binding using Autodock vs 4.2.6 to perform docking investigations on the molecule. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used experiments for protein and Ligand complex. Insilico analysis has substantiated the identification of a newly isolated compound, namely (Z)-4-hydroxy-2-((4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methylene)-6-methylbenzofuran-3(2H)-one, which exhibits significant antidiabetic properties. Notably, this compound demonstrates superior efficacy in managing diabetes when compared to established diabetic medications such as acarbose, glibenclamide, Ligand-L1, metformin, and sitagliptin.&nbsp;&nbsp; In conclusion, this study advances our understanding of Flaveria trinervia from botanical, chemical, and pharmacological perspectives. This underscores the potential of this plant as a source of natural antidiabetic agents and highlights the importance of interdisciplinary approaches in characterising novel plant species with therapeutic potential.</p> Anju Varghese A*, Anton Smith A1, Sreejith M Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 05 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular interaction studies in a binary mixture of ketone and alcohol using Thermo-Optical analysis <p>Refractive indices and densities of&nbsp; a binary mixture – methyl ethyl ketone and n-propanol were measured&nbsp; at three different temperatures namely 303.15K, 308.15K and 313.15K .Using these direct parameters, optical parameters such as specific optical volume (ν), specific optic impedance (Z_o), specific refraction (rm) and specific light velocity (µ) were determined. The excess values of these parameters were used to elucidate the nature of molecular interaction present in the binary system. The positive as well as negative excess values show the presence of molecular interactions present in the components of the mixture.</p> R G Bindu* and Lilly Iype Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 05 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dental anomalies and non-metric morphological traits as Forensic tool for personal identification: a systematic review <p>Identification of an unknown person during natural and artificial mass disasters like earthquakes, Tsunami, plain crash, brutal murders, terrorist attacks etc., is one of the most challenging and integral part of forensic science. Identification needs presence of unique and individualistic features on the basis of which the investigation can be carried out.</p> Dr. Richa Mishra, Dr. Dinesh Kumar Bagga, Dr. Priyanka Puri, Dr. Keyur J Soni, Dr. Roli Singh, *Dr. Shailesh Jain Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 08 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000