Morphological and Morphometric Characteristics of the Mandibular Condyle: Implications for Clinical and Prosthetic Application


  • S.Jayakumari*, Avdesh Singh, Mary Antony Praba, WMS Johnson


Mandible, Morphometry, Anthropometry, Forensic Science, Wedel classification.


The study of mandibular morphology has been a significant focus in the field of anatomy, anthropology, and forensic science. It is important to accurately measure and understand the morphological characteristics of the mandible, especially for anthropometric , forensic and  clinical and prosthetic application purposes. The present study aims to provide morphometric data on dry mandibles collected from two different medical colleges in India, with a focus on the shape of the condyle viewed from three perspective.


Research indicates that the morphology of the mandibular joint can adapt to biomechanical pressures that occur during function. The temporomandibular joint consists of the mandibular condyle (MC), which articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone to create the joint. Mandibular condyles can be categorized into five distinct shapes: convex, flattened, angled, rounded, plane, and concave. Previous studies have revealed variations in the size and shape of mandibular condyles within populations. This study aims to measure the size and shape of MCs in order to compare them with sex.


In this study, we collected data from 139 dry mandibles, comprising 278 condyles, to investigate their morphological and morphometric characteristics. The gender distribution of the mandibles was as follows: 67 male, 49 female, and 23 unknown. Using the categorization system developed by Wedel et al. (1978), we identified various condyle shapes. We analyzed the parameters of condyle morphology and morphometry using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). From the anterior, posterior, and lateral angles, we observed that the mandibular condyle appeared flat, round or oval, and somewhat convex. Our findings were compared with previous research.


This study provides valuable morphometric data on the mandible and condyle shape viewed from different perspectives. The results may be useful for anthropometric, forensic purposes and prosthetic application. The differences observed between genders in the morphometric parameters highlight the importance of considering gender when analyzing mandibular morphology. Future studies should consider larger sample sizes and more diverse populations for more comprehensive analyses.